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linux系统调用之ftok()

Posted on 2009-07-14 21:50 Prayer 阅读(766) 评论(0)  编辑 收藏 引用 所属分类: LINUX/UNIX/AIX

ftok原型如下:
key_t ftok( char * fname, int id )
fname就时你指定的文件名,id是子序号。

失败返回值为-1

ftok应用范围:在IPC通信及消息记者中使用

解析:

系统建立IPC通讯(如消息队列、共享内存时)必须指定一个ID值。通常情况下,该id值通过ftok函数得到。

在一般的UNIX实现中,是将文件的索引节点号取出,前面加上子序号得到key_t的返回值。

如指定文件的索引节点号为65538,换算成16进制为0x010002,而你指定的ID值为38,换算成16进制为0x26,则最后的key_t返回值为0x26010002。
查询文件索引节点号可通过命令: ls -i来查看

nux Programmer's Manual                   FTOK(3)
                                                                                                                                      
NAME
       ftok - convert a pathname and a project identifier to a System V IPC
       key
                                                                                                                                      
SYNOPSIS
       # include <sys/types.h>
       # include <sys/ipc.h>
                                                                                                                                      
       key_t ftok(const char *pathname, int proj_id);
                                                                                                                                      
DESCRIPTION
       The ftok function uses the identity of the file named by the given
       pathname (which must refer to an existing, accessible file) and the
       least significant 8 bits of proj_id (which must be nonzero) to generate
       a key_t type System V IPC key, suitable for use with msgget(2),
       semget(2), or shmget(2).
                                                                                                                                      
       The resulting value is the same for all pathnames that name the same
       file, when the same value of proj_id is used. The value returned should
       be different when the (simultaneously existing) files or the project
       IDs differ.
                                                                                                                                      
RETURN VALUE
       On success the generated key_t value is returned. On failure -1 is
       returned, with errno indicating the error as for the stat(2) system
       call.
                                                                                                                                      
CONFORMING TO
       XPG4
                                                                                                                                      
NOTES
       Under libc4 and libc5 (and under SunOS 4.x) the prototype was
              key_t ftok(char *pathname, char proj_id);
       Today proj_id is an int, but still only 8 bits are used. Typical usage
       has an ASCII character proj_id, that is why the behaviour is said to be
       undefined when proj_id is zero.


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