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[vim]Best of Vim Tips

  • zzapper's Tips Page
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    __BEGIN__
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # searching
    /joe/e                      : cursor set to End of match
    /joe/e+1                    : cursor set to End of match plus 1
    /joe/s-2                    : cursor set to Start of match minus 2
    /^joe.*fred.*bill/          : normal
    /^[A-J]\+/                  : search for lines beginning with one or more A-J
    /begin\_.*end               : search over possible multiple lines
    /fred\_s*joe/i              : any whitespace including newline
    /fred\|joe                  : Search for FRED OR JOE
    /\([^0-9]\|^\)%.*%          : Search for absence of a digit or beginning of line
    /.*fred\&.*joe              : Search for FRED AND JOE in any ORDER!
    /\<fred\>/i                 : search for fred but not alfred or frederick
    /\<\d\d\d\d\>               : Search for exactly 4 digit numbers
    /\D\d\d\d\d\D               : Search for exactly 4 digit numbers
    /\<\d\{4}\>                 : same thing
    # finding empty lines
    /^\n\{3}                    : find 3 empty lines
    # Specify what you are NOT searching for (vowels)
    /\c\v([^aeiou]&\a){4}       : search for 4 consecutive consanants
    # using rexexp memory in a search
    /\(fred\).*\(joe\).*\2.*\1
    # Repeating the Regexp (rather than what the Regexp finds)
    /^\([^,]*,\)\{8}
    # visual searching
    :vmap // y/<C-R>"<CR>       : search for visually highlighted text
    :vmap <silent> //    y/<C-R>=escape(@", '\\/.*$^~[]')<CR><CR> : with spec chars
    # searching over multiple lines \_ means including newline
    /<!--\_p\{-}-->                   : search for multiple line comments
    /fred\_s*joe/i                    : any whitespace including newline
    /bugs\(\_.\)*bunny                : bugs followed by bunny anywhere in file
    :h \_                             : help
    # search for declaration of subroutine/function under cursor
    :nmap gx yiw/^\(sub\<bar>function\)\s\+<C-R>"<CR>
    # multiple file search
    :bufdo /searchstr
    :argdo /searchstr
    # How to search for a URL without backslashing
    ?http://www.vim.org/        : search BACKWARDS!!! clever huh!
    ----------------------------------------
    #substitution
    :%s/fred/joe/igc            : general substitute command
    :%s/\r//g                   : Delete DOS returns ^M
    # Is your Text File jumbled onto one line? use following
    :%s/\r/\r/g                 : Turn DOS returns ^M into real returns
    :%s=  *$==                  : delete end of line blanks
    :%s= \+$==                  : Same thing
    :%s#\s*\r\?$##              : Clean both trailing spaces AND DOS returns
    :%s#\s*\r*$##               : same thing
    # deleting empty lines
    :%s/^\n\{3}//               : delete blocks of 3 empty lines
    :%s/^\n\+/\r/               : compressing empty lines
    %s#<[^>]\+>##g              : delete html tags, leave text
    # IF YOU ONLY WANT TO KNOW ONE THING
    :'a,'bg/fred/s/dick/joe/igc : VERY USEFUL
    # duplicating columns
    :%s= [^ ]\+$=&&=            : duplicate end column
    :%s= \f\+$=&&=              : same thing
    :%s= \S\+$=&&               : usually the same
    # memory
    :s/\(.*\):\(.*\)/\2 : \1/   : reverse fields separated by :
    :%s/^\(.*\)\n\1/\1$/        : delete duplicate lines
    # non-greedy matching \{-}
    :%s/^.\{-}pdf/new.pdf/      : delete to 1st pdf only
    # use of optional atom \?
    :%s#\<[zy]\?tbl_[a-z_]\+\>#\L&#gc : lowercase with optional leading characters
    # over possibly many lines
    :%s/<!--\_.\{-}-->//        : delete possibly multi-line comments
    :help /\{-}                 : help non-greedy
    # substitute using a register
    :s/fred/<c-r>a/g            : sub "fred" with contents of register "a"
    :s/fred/\=@a/g              : better alternative as register not displayed
    # multiple commands on one line
    :%s/\f\+\.gif\>/\r&\r/g | v/\.gif$/d | %s/gif/jpg/
    # ORing
    :%s/suck\|buck/loopy/gc     : ORing (must break pipe)
    # Calling a VIM function
    :s/__date__/\=strftime("%c")/ : insert datestring
    # Working with Columns sub any str1 in col3
    :%s:\(\(\w\+\s\+\)\{2}\)str1:\1str2:
    # Swapping first & last column (4 columns)
    :%s:\(\w\+\)\(.*\s\+\)\(\w\+\)$:\3\2\1:
    # filter all form elements into paste register
    :redir @*|sil exec 'g#<\(input\|select\|textarea\|/\=form\)\>#p'|redir END
    :nmap ,z :redir @*<Bar>sil exec 'g@<\(input\<Bar>select\<Bar>textarea\<Bar>/\=form\)\>@p'<Bar>redir END<CR>
    # decrement numbers by 3
    :%s/\d\+/\=(3-submatch(0))/
    # increment numbers by 6 on certain lines only
    :g/loc\|function/s/\d/\=submatch(0)+6/
    # better
    :%s#txtdev\zs\d#\=submatch(0)+1#g
    :h /\zs
    # increment only numbers gg\d\d  by 6 (another way)
    :%s/\(gg\)\@<=\d\+/\=submatch(0)+6/
    :h zero-width
    # find replacement text, put in memory, then use \zs to simplify substitute
    :%s/"\([^.]\+\).*\zsxx/\1/
    # Pull word under cursor into LHS of a substitute
    :nmap <leader>z :%s#\<<c-r>=expand("<cword>")<cr>\>#
    # Pull Visually Highlighted text into LHS of a substitute
    :vmap <leader>z :<C-U>%s/\<<c-r>*\>/
    ----------------------------------------
    # all following performing similar task, substitute within substitution
    # Multiple single character substitution in a portion of line only
    :%s,\(all/.*\)\@<=/,_,g     : replace all / with _ AFTER "all/"
    # Same thing
    :s#all/\zs.*#\=substitute(submatch(0), '/', '_', 'g')#
    # Substitute by splitting line, then re-joining
    :s#all/#&^M#|s#/#_#g|-j!
    # Substitute inside substitute
    :%s/.*/\='cp '.submatch(0).' all/'.substitute(submatch(0),'/','_','g')/
    ----------------------------------------
    # global command display (see tip 227)
    :g/fred.*joe.*dick/         : display all lines fred,joe & dick
    :g/\<fred\>/                : display all lines fred but not freddy
    :g/<pattern>/z#.5           : display with context
    :g/<pattern>/z#.5|echo "=========="  : display beautifully
    :g/^\s*$/d                  : delete all blank lines
    :g!/^dd/d                   : delete lines not containing string
    :v/^dd/d                    : delete lines not containing string
    :g/fred/,/joe/d             : not line based (very powerfull)
    :g/{/ ,/}/- s/\n\+/\r/g     : Delete empty lines but only between {...}
    :v/\S/d                     : Delete empty lines (both types)
    :v/./.,/./-1join            : compress empty lines
    :g/^$/,/./-j                : compress empty lines
    :g/<input\|<form/p          : ORing
    :g/^/put_                   : double space file (pu = put)
    :g/^/m0                     : Reverse file (m = move)
    :g/^/t.                     : duplicate every line
    :g/fred/t$                  : copy lines matching fred to EOF
    :g/stage/t'a                : copy lines matching stage to marker a
    # match all lines containing "somestr" between markers a & b
    # copy after line containing "otherstr"
    :'a,'bg/somestr/co/otherstr/ : co(py) or mo(ve)
    # as above but also do a substitution
    :'a,'bg/str1/s/str1/&&&/|mo/str2/
    :%norm jdd                  : delete every other line
    # incrementing numbers (type <c-a> as 5 characters)
    :.,$g/^\d/exe "norm! \<c-a>": increment numbers
    :'a,'bg/\d\+/norm! ^A       : increment numbers
    # storing glob results (note must use APPEND)
    :g/fred/y A                 : append all lines fred to register a
    :'a,'b g/^Error/ . w >> errors.txt
    # duplicate every line in a file wrap a print '' around each duplicate
    :g/./yank|put|-1s/'/"/g|s/.*/Print '&'/
    # replace string with contents of a file, -d deletes the "mark"
    :g/^MARK$/r tmp.ex | -d
    ----------------------------------------
    # Global combined with substitute (power editing)
    :'a,'bg/fred/s/joe/susan/gic :  can use memory to extend matching
    :g/fred/,/joe/s/fred/joe/gic :  non-line based (ultra)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Find fred before beginning search for joe
    :/fred/;/joe/-2,/sid/+3s/sally/alley/gIC
    ----------------------------------------
    # Absolutely essential
    ----------------------------------------
    * # g* g#           : find word under cursor (<cword>) (forwards/backwards)
    %                   : match brackets {}[]()
    .                   : repeat last modification
    matchit.vim         : % now matches tags <tr><td><script> <?php etc
    <C-N><C-P>          : word completion in insert mode
    <C-X><C-L>          : Line complete SUPER USEFUL
    /<C-R><C-W>         : Pull <cword> onto search/command line
    /<C-R><C-A>         : Pull <CWORD> onto search/command line
    :set ignorecase     : you nearly always want this
    :syntax on          : colour syntax in Perl,HTML,PHP etc
    :h regexp<C-D>      : type control-D and get a list all help topics containing
                          regexp (plus use TAB to Step thru list)
    ----------------------------------------
    # MAKE IT EASY TO UPDATE/RELOAD _vimrc
    :nmap ,s :source $VIM/_vimrc
    :nmap ,v :e $VIM/_vimrc
    ----------------------------------------
    #VISUAL MODE (easy to add other HTML Tags)
    :vmap sb "zdi<b><C-R>z</b><ESC>  : wrap <b></b> around VISUALLY selected Text
    :vmap st "zdi<?= <C-R>z ?><ESC>  : wrap <?=   ?> around VISUALLY selected Text
    ----------------------------------------
    # Exploring
    :Exp(lore)                      : file explorer note capital Ex
    :Sex(plore)                     : file explorer in split window
    :ls                             : list of buffers
    :cd ..                          : move to parent directory
    :args                           : list of files
    :lcd %:p:h                      : change to directory of current file
    :autocmd BufEnter * lcd %:p:h   : change to directory of current file automatically (put in _vimrc)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Buffer Explorer (Top Ten Vim Script)
    # needs bufexplorer.vim  http://www.vim.org/script.php?script_id=42
    \be                             : buffer explorer list of buffers
    \bs                             : buffer explorer (split window)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Changing Case
    guu                             : lowercase line
    gUU                             : uppercase line
    Vu                              : lowercase line
    VU                              : uppercase line
    g~~                             : flip case line
    vEU                             : Upper Case Word
    vE~                             : Flip Case Word
    ggguG                           : lowercase entire file
    # Titlise Visually Selected Text (map for .vimrc)
    vmap ,c :s/\<\(.\)\(\k*\)\>/\u\1\L\2/g<CR>
    # Uppercase first letter of sentences
    :%s/[.!?]\_s\+\a/\U&\E/g
    ----------------------------------------
    gf                              : open file name under cursor (SUPER)
    :nnoremap gF :view <cfile><cr>  : open file under cursor, create if necessary
    ga                              : display hex,ascii value of char under cursor
    ggVGg?                          : rot13 whole file
    ggg?G                           : rot13 whole file (quicker for large file)
    :8 | normal VGg?                : rot13 from line 8
    :normal 10GVGg?                 : rot13 from line 8
    <C-A>,<C-X>                     : increment,decrement number under cursor
                                      win32 users must remap CNTRL-A
    <C-R>=5*5                       : insert 25 into text (mini-calculator)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Makes all other tips superfluous
    :h 42            : also http://www.google.com/search?q=42
    :h holy-grail
    :h!
    ----------------------------------------
    # Markers & moving about
    '.               : jump to last modification line (SUPER)
    `.               : jump to exact spot in last modification line
    g;               : cycle thru recent changes (oldest first) (new in vim6.3)
    g,               : reverse direction (new in vim6.3)
    :changes
    :h changelist    : help for above
    <C-O>            : retrace your movements in file (starting from most recent)
    <C-I>            : retrace your movements in file (reverse direction)
    :ju(mps)         : list of your movements
    :help jump-motions
    :history         : list of all your commands
    :his c           : commandline history
    :his s           : search history
    q/               : Search history Window
    q:               : commandline history Window
    :<C-F>           : history Window
    ----------------------------------------
    # Abbreviations & maps
    :map   <f7>   :'a,'bw! c:/aaa/x
    :map   <f8>   :r c:/aaa/x
    :map   <f11>  :.w! c:/aaa/xr<CR>
    :map   <f12>  :r c:/aaa/xr<CR>
    :ab php          : list of abbreviations beginning php
    :map ,           : list of maps beginning ,
    # allow use of F10 for mapping (win32)
    set wak=no       : :h winaltkeys
    # For use in Maps
    <CR>             : carriage Return for maps
    <ESC>            : Escape
    <LEADER>         : normally \
    <BAR>            : | pipe
    <BACKSPACE>      : backspace
    #display RGB colour under the cursor eg #445588
    :nmap <leader>c :hi Normal guibg=#<c-r>=expand("<cword>")<cr><cr>
    ----------------------------------------
    # Using a register as a map (preload registers in .vimrc)
    :let @m=":'a,'bs/"
    :let @s=":%!sort -u"
    ----------------------------------------
    # List your Registers
    :reg             : display contents of all registers
    :reg a           : display content of individual registers
    "1p....          : retrieve numeric registers one by one
    :let @y='yy@"'   : pre-loading registers (put in .vimrc)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Useful tricks
    "ayy@a           : execute "Vim command" in a text file
    yy@"             : same thing using unnamed register
    u@.              : execute command JUST typed in
    ----------------------------------------
    # Get output from other commands (requires external programs)
    :r!ls.exe        : reads in output of ls
    !!date           : same thing (but replaces/filters current line)
    # Sorting with external sort
    :%!sort -u       : use an external program to filter content
    :'a,'b!sort -u   : use an external program to filter content
    !1} sort -u      : sorts paragraph (note normal mode!!)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Multiple Files Management (Essential)
    :bn              : goto next buffer
    :bp              : goto previous buffer
    :wn              : save file and move to next (super)
    :wp              : save file and move to previous
    :bd              : remove file from buffer list (super)
    :bun             : Buffer unload (remove window but not from list)
    :badd file.c     : file from buffer list
    :b 3             : go to buffer 3
    :b main          : go to buffer with main in name eg main.c (ultra)
    :sav php.html    : Save current file as php.html and "move" to php.html
    :sav! %<.bak     : Save Current file to alternative extension
    :sav! %:r.cfm    : Save Current file to alternative extension
    :e!              : return to unmodified file
    :w c:/aaa/%      : save file elsewhere
    :e #             : edit alternative file (also cntrl-^)
    :rew             : return to beginning of edited files list (:args)
    :brew            : buffer rewind
    :sp fred.txt     : open fred.txt into a split
    :sball,:sb       : Split all buffers (super)
    :scrollbind      : in each split window
    :map   <F5> :ls<CR>:e # : Pressing F5 lists all buffer, just type number
    :set hidden      : Allows to change buffer w/o saving current buffer
    ----------------------------------------
    # Quick jumping between splits
    map <C-J> <C-W>j<C-W>_
    map <C-K> <C-W>k<C-W>_
    ----------------------------------------
    # Recording (BEST TIP of ALL)
    qq  # record to q
    your complex series of commands
    q   # end recording
    @q to execute
    @@ to Repeat
    5@@ to Repeat 5 times
    # editing a register/recording
    "qp                               :display contents of register q (normal mode)
    <ctrl-R>q                         :display contents of register q (insert mode)
    # you can now see recording contents, edit as required
    "qdd                              :put changed contacts back into q
    @q                                :execute recording/register q
    # Operating a Recording on a Visual BLOCK
    1) define recording/register
    qq:s/ to/ from/g^Mq
    2) Define Visual BLOCK
    V}
    3) hit : and the following appears
    :'<,'>
    4)Complete as follows
    :'<,'>norm @q
    ----------------------------------------
    # Visual is the newest and usually the BEST editing mode
    # Visual basics
    v                               : enter visual mode
    V                               : visual mode whole line
    <C-V>                           : enter VISUAL BLOCK mode
    gv                              : reselect last visual area (ultra)
    o                               : navigate visual area
    "*y                             : yank visual area into paste buffer
    V%                              : visualise what you match
    V}J                             : Join Visual block (great)
    V}gJ                            : Join Visual block w/o adding spaces
    ----------------------------------------
    # Delete first 2 characters of 10 successive lines
    0<c-v>10j2ld
    ----------------------------------------
    # how to copy a set of columns using VISUAL BLOCK
    # visual block (AKA columnwise selection) (NOT BY ordinary v command)
    <C-V> then select "column(s)" with motion commands (win32 <C-Q>)
    then c,d,y,r etc
    ----------------------------------------
    # how to overwrite a visual-block of text with another such block
    Pick the first block: ctrl-v move "ay
    Pick the second block: ctrl-v move c ctrl-o "aP <esc>
    ----------------------------------------
    # _vimrc essentials
    :set incsearch : jumps to search word as you type (annoying but excellent)
    :set wildignore=*.o,*.obj,*.bak,*.exe : tab complete now ignores these
    :set shiftwidth=3                     : for shift/tabbing
    :set vb t_vb=".                       : set silent (no beep)
    :set browsedir=buffer                 : Maki GUI File Open use current directory
    ----------------------------------------
    # launching Win IE
    :nmap ,f :update<CR>:silent !start c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe file://%:p<CR>
    :nmap ,i :update<CR>: !start c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe <cWORD><CR>
    ----------------------------------------
    # FTPing from VIM
    cmap ,r  :Nread ftp://209.51.134.122/public_html/index.html
    cmap ,w  :Nwrite ftp://209.51.134.122/public_html/index.html
    gvim ftp://209.51.134.122/public_html/index.html
    ----------------------------------------
    # appending to registers (use CAPITAL)
    # yank 5 lines into "a" then add a further 5
    "a5yy
    10j
    "A5yy
    ----------------------------------------
    [I     : show lines matching word under cursor <cword> (super)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Conventional Shifting/Indenting
    :'a,'b>>
    # visual shifting (builtin-repeat)
    :vnoremap < <gv
    :vnoremap > >gv
    # Block shifting (magic)
    >i{
    >a{
    # also
    >% and <%
    ----------------------------------------
    # Redirection & Paste register *
    :redir @*                    : redirect commands to paste buffer
    :redir END                   : end redirect
    :redir >> out.txt            : redirect to a file
    # Working with Paste buffer
    "*yy                         : yank to paste
    "*p                          : insert from paste buffer
    # yank to paste buffer (ex mode)
    :'a,'by*                     : Yank range into paste
    :%y*                         : Yank whole buffer into paste
    # filter non-printable characters from the paste buffer
    # useful when pasting from some gui application
    :nmap <leader>p :let @* = substitute(@*,'[^[:print:]]','','g')<cr>"*p
    ----------------------------------------
    # Re-Formatting text
    gq}                          : Format a paragraph
    ggVGgq                       : Reformat entire file
    Vgq                          : current line
    # break lines at 70 chars, if possible after a ;
    :s/.\{,69\};\s*\|.\{,69\}\s\+/&\r/g
    ----------------------------------------
    # Operate command over multiple files
    :argdo %s/foo/bar/e          : operate on all files in :args
    :bufdo %s/foo/bar/e
    :windo %s/foo/bar/e
    :argdo exe '%!sort'|w!       : include an external command
    :bufdo /foo/
    ----------------------------------------
    # Command line tricks
    gvim -h                    : help
    ls | gvim -                : edit a stream!!
    cat xx | gvim - -c "v/^\d\d\|^[3-9]/d " : filter a stream
    gvim -o file1 file2        : open into a split
    # execute one command after opening file
    gvim.exe -c "/main" joe.c  : Open joe.c & jump to "main"
    # execute multiple command on a single file
    vim -c "%s/ABC/DEF/ge | update" file1.c
    # execute multiple command on a group of files
    vim -c "argdo %s/ABC/DEF/ge | update" *.c
    # remove blocks of text from a series of files
    vim -c "argdo /begin/+1,/end/-1g/^/d | update" *.c
    # Automate editing of a file (Ex commands in convert.vim)
    vim -s "convert.vim" file.c
    #load VIM without .vimrc and plugins (clean VIM)
    gvim -u NONE -U NONE -N
    # Access paste buffer contents (put in a script/batch file)
    gvim -c 'normal ggdG"*p' c:/aaa/xp
    # print paste contents to default printer
    gvim -c 's/^/\=@*/|hardcopy!|q!'
    # gvim's use of external grep (win32 or *nix)
    :grep somestring *.php     : creates a list of all matching files
    # use :cn(ext) :cp(rev) to navigate list
    :h grep
    ----------------------------------------
    # GVIM Difference Function (Brilliant)
    gvim -d file1 file2        : vimdiff (compare differences)
    dp                         : "put" difference under cursor to other file
    do                         : "get" difference under cursor from other file
    ----------------------------------------
    # Vim traps
    In regular expressions you must backslash + (match 1 or more)
    In regular expressions you must backslash | (or)
    In regular expressions you must backslash ( (group)
    In regular expressions you must backslash { (count)
    /fred\+/                   : matches fred/freddy but not free
    /\(fred\)\{2,3}/           : note what you have to break
    ----------------------------------------
    # \v or very magic (usually) reduces backslashing
    /codes\(\n\|\s\)*where  : normal regexp
    /\vcodes(\n|\s)*where   : very magic
    ----------------------------------------
    # pulling objects onto command/search line (SUPER)
    <C-R><C-W> : pull word under the cursor into a command line or search
    <C-R><C-A> : pull WORD under the cursor into a command line or search
    <C-R>-                  : pull small register (also insert mode)
    <C-R>[0-9a-z]           : pull named registers (also insert mode)
    <C-R>%                  : pull file name (also #) (also insert mode)
    <C-R>=somevar           : pull contents of a variable (eg :let sray="ray[0-9]")
    ----------------------------------------
    # manipulating registers
    :let @a=@_              : clear register a
    :let @a=""              : clear register a
    :let @*=@a              : copy register a to paste buffer
    map   <f11> "qyy:let @q=@q."zzz"
    ----------------------------------------
    # help for help
    :h quickref             : VIM Quick Reference Sheet (ultra)
    :h tips                 : Vim's own Tips Help
    :h visual<C-D><tab>     : obtain  list of all visual help topics
                            : Then use tab to step thru them
    :h ctrl<C-D>            : list help of all control keys
    :helpg uganda           : grep HELP Files use :cn, :cp to find next
    :h :r                   : help for :ex command
    :h CTRL-R               : normal mode
    :h /\r                  : what's \r in a regexp (matches a <CR>)
    :h \\zs                 : double up backslash to find \zs in help
    :h i_CTRL-R             : help for say <C-R> in insert mode
    :h c_CTRL-R             : help for say <C-R> in command mode
    :h v_CTRL-V             : visual mode
    :h tutor                : VIM Tutor
    <C-[>, <C-T>            : Move back & Forth in HELP History
    gvim -h                 : VIM Command Line Help
    ----------------------------------------
    # where was an option set
    :scriptnames            : list all plugins, _vimrcs loaded (super)
    :verbose set history?   : reveals value of history and where set
    :function               : list functions
    :func SearchCompl       : List particular function
    ----------------------------------------
    # making your own VIM help
    :helptags /vim/vim63/doc  : rebuild all *.txt help files in /doc
    :help add-local-help
    ----------------------------------------
    # running file thru an external program (eg php)
    map   <f9>   :w<CR>:!c:/php/php.exe %<CR>
    map   <f2>   :w<CR>:!perl -c %<CR>
    ----------------------------------------
    # capturing output of current script in a separate buffer
    :new | r!perl #                   : opens new buffer,read other buffer
    :new! x.out | r!perl #            : same with named file
    ----------------------------------------
    # Inserting DOS Carriage Returns
    :%s/nubian/<C-V><C-M>&/g          :  that's what you type
    :%s/nubian/<C-Q><C-M>&/g          :  for Win32
    :%s/nubian/^M&/g                  :  what you'll see where ^M is ONE character
    :%s/nubian/\r&/g                  :  better
    ----------------------------------------
    # automatically delete trailing Dos-returns,whitespace
    autocmd BufRead * silent! %s/[\r \t]\+$//
    autocmd BufEnter *.php :%s/[ \t\r]\+$//e
    ----------------------------------------
    # perform an action on a particular file or file type
    autocmd VimEnter c:/intranet/note011.txt normal! ggVGg?
    autocmd FileType *.pl exec('set fileformats=unix')
    ----------------------------------------
    # Retrieving last command line command for copy & pasting into text
    i<c-r>:
    # Retrieving last Search Command for copy & pasting into text
    i<c-r>/
    ----------------------------------------
    # more completions
    <C-X><C-F>                        :insert name of a file in current directory
    ----------------------------------------
    # Substituting a Visual area
    # select visual area as usual (:h visual) then type :s/Emacs/Vim/ etc
    :'<,'>s/Emacs/Vim/g               : REMEMBER you dont type the '<.'>
    gv                                : Re-select the previous visual area (ULTRA)
    ----------------------------------------
    # inserting line number into file
    :g/^/exec "s/^/".strpart(line(".")."    ", 0, 4)
    :%s/^/\=strpart(line(".")."     ", 0, 5)
    :%s/^/\=line('.'). ' '
    ----------------------------------------
    #numbering lines VIM way
    :set number                       : show line numbers
    :map <F12> :set number!<CR>       : Show linenumbers flip-flop
    :%s/^/\=strpart(line('.')."        ",0,&ts)
    #numbering lines (need Perl on PC) starting from arbitrary number
    :'a,'b!perl -pne 'BEGIN{$a=223} substr($_,2,0)=$a++'
    #Produce a list of numbers
    #Type in number on line say 223 in an empty file
    qqmnYP`n^Aq                       : in recording q repeat with @q
    # increment existing numbers to end of file (type <c-a> as 5 characters)
    :.,$g/^\d/exe "normal! \<c-a>"
    # advanced incrementing
    http://vim.sourceforge.net/tip_view.php?tip_id=150
    ----------------------------------------
    # advanced incrementing (really useful)
    " put following in _vimrc
    let g:I=0
    function! INC(increment)
    let g:I =g:I + a:increment
    return g:I
    endfunction
    " eg create list starting from 223 incrementing by 5 between markers a,b
    :let I=223
    :'a,'bs/^/\=INC(5)/
    " create a map for INC
    cab viminc :let I=223 \| 'a,'bs/$/\=INC(5)/
    ----------------------------------------
    # editing/moving within current insert (Really useful)
    <C-U>                             : delete all entered
    <C-W>                             : delete last word
    <HOME><END>                       : beginning/end of line
    <C-LEFTARROW><C-RIGHTARROW>       : jump one word backwards/forwards
    <C-X><C-E>,<C-X><C-Y>             : scroll while staying put in insert
    ----------------------------------------
    #encryption (use with care: DON'T FORGET your KEY)
    :X                                : you will be prompted for a key
    :h :X
    ----------------------------------------
    # modeline (make a file readonly etc) must be in first/last 5 lines
    // vim:noai:ts=2:sw=4:readonly:
    # vim:ft=html:                    : says use HTML Syntax highlighting
    :h modeline
    ----------------------------------------
    # Creating your own GUI Toolbar entry
    amenu  Modeline.Insert\ a\ VIM\ modeline <Esc><Esc>ggOvim:ff=unix ts=4 ss=4<CR>vim60:fdm=marker<esc>gg
    ----------------------------------------
    # A function to save word under cursor to a file
    function! SaveWord()
       normal yiw
       exe ':!echo '.@0.' >> word.txt'
    endfunction
    map ,p :call SaveWord()
    ----------------------------------------
    # function to delete duplicate lines
    function! Del()
    if getline(".") == getline(line(".") - 1)
       norm dd
    endif
    endfunction

    :g/^/ call Del()
    ----------------------------------------
    # Digraphs (non alpha-numerics)
    :digraphs                         : display table
    :h dig                            : help
    i<C-K>e'                          : enters �
    i<C-V>233                         : enters � (Unix)
    i<C-Q>233                         : enters � (Win32)
    ga                                : View hex value of any character
    #Deleting non-ascii characters (some invisible)
    :%s/[<C-V>128-<C-V>255]//gi       : where you have to type the Control-V
    :%s/[€-�]//gi                     : Should see a black square & a dotted y
    :%s/[<C-V>128-<C-V>255<C-V>01-<C-V>31]//gi : All pesky non-asciis
    :exec "norm /[\x00-\x1f\x80-\xff]/"        : same thing
    #Pull a non-ascii character onto search bar
    yl/<C-R>"                         :
    ----------------------------------------
    # All file completions grouped (for example main_c.c)
    :e main_<tab>                     : tab completes
    gf                                : open file under cursor  (normal)
    main_<C-X><C-F>                   : include NAME of file in text (insert mode)
    ----------------------------------------
    # Complex Vim
    # swap two words
    :%s/\<\(on\|off\)\>/\=strpart("offon", 3 * ("off" == submatch(0)), 3)/g
    # swap two words
    :vnoremap <C-X> <Esc>`.``gvP``P
    ----------------------------------------
    # Convert Text File to HTML
    :runtime! syntax/2html.vim        : convert txt to html
    :h 2html
    ----------------------------------------
    # VIM has internal grep
    :grep some_keyword *.c            : get list of all c-files containing keyword
    :cn                               : go to next occurrence
    ----------------------------------------
    # Force Syntax coloring for a file that has no extension .pl
    :set syntax=perl
    # Remove syntax coloring (useful for all sorts of reasons)
    :set syntax off
    # change coloring scheme (any file in ~vim/vim??/colors)
    :colorscheme blue
    # Force HTML Syntax highlighting by using a modeline
    # vim:ft=html:
    ----------------------------------------
    :set noma (non modifiable)        : Prevents modifications
    :set ro (Read Only)               : Protect a file from unintentional writes
    ----------------------------------------
    # Sessions (Open a set of files)
    gvim file1.c file2.c lib/lib.h lib/lib2.h : load files for "session"
    :mksession                        : Make a Session file (default Session.vim)
    :q
    gvim -S Session.vim               : Reload all files
    ----------------------------------------
    #tags (jumping to subroutines/functions)
    taglist.vim                       : popular plugin
    :Tlist                            : display Tags (list of functions)
    <C-]>                             : jump to function under cursor
    ----------------------------------------
    # columnise a csv file for display only as may crop wide columns
    :let width = 20
    :let fill=' ' | while strlen(fill) < width | let fill=fill.fill | endwhile
    :%s/\([^;]*\);\=/\=strpart(submatch(1).fill, 0, width)/ge
    :%s/\s\+$//ge
    # Highlight a particular csv column (put in .vimrc)
    function! CSVH(x)
        execute 'match Keyword /^\([^,]*,\)\{'.a:x.'}\zs[^,]*/'
        execute 'normal ^'.a:x.'f,'
    endfunction
    command! -nargs=1 Csv :call CSVH(<args>)
    # call with
    :Csv 5                             : highlight fifth column
    ----------------------------------------
    # folding : hide sections to allow easier comparisons
    zf}                               : fold paragraph using motion
    v}zf                              : fold paragraph using visual
    zf'a                              : fold to mark
    zo                                : open fold
    zc                                : re-close fold
    ----------------------------------------
    # displaying "invisible characters"
    :set list
    :h listchars
    ----------------------------------------
    # How to paste "normal commands" w/o entering insert mode
    :norm qqy$jq
    ----------------------------------------
    # manipulating file names
    :h filename-modifiers             : help
    :w %                              : write to current file name
    :w %:r.cfm                        : change file extention to .cfm
    :!echo %:p                        : full path & file name
    :!echo %:p:h                      : full path only
    <C-R>%                            : insert filename (insert mode)
    "%p                               : insert filename (normal mode)
    /<C-R>%                           : Search for file name in text
    ----------------------------------------
    # delete without destroying default buffer contents
    "_d                               : what you've ALWAYS wanted
    "_dw                              : eg delete word (use blackhole)
    ----------------------------------------
    # pull full path name into paste buffer for attachment to email etc
    nnoremap <F2> :let @*=expand("%:p")<cr> :unix
    nnoremap <F2> :let @*=substitute(expand("%:p"), "/", "\\", "g")<cr> :win32
    ----------------------------------------
    # Simple Shell script to rename files w/o leaving vim
    $ vim
    :r! ls *.c
    :%s/\(.*\).c/mv & \1.bla
    :w !sh
    :q!
    ----------------------------------------
    # count words in a text file
    g<C-G>
    ----------------------------------------
    # example of setting your own highlighting
    :syn match DoubleSpace "  "
    :hi def DoubleSpace guibg=#e0e0e0
    ----------------------------------------
    # Programming keys depending on file type
    :autocmd bufenter *.tex map <F1> :!latex %<CR>
    :autocmd bufenter *.tex map <F2> :!xdvi -hush %<.dvi&<CR>
    ----------------------------------------
    # reading Ms-Word documents, requires antiword
    :autocmd BufReadPre *.doc set ro
    :autocmd BufReadPre *.doc set hlsearch!
    :autocmd BufReadPost *.doc %!antiword "%"
    ----------------------------------------
    # a folding method
    vim: filetype=help foldmethod=marker foldmarker=<<<,>>>
    A really big section closed with a tag <<<
    --- remember folds can be nested ---
    Closing tag >>>
    ----------------------------------------
    # Just Another Vim Hacker JAVH
    vim -c ":%s%s*%Cyrnfr)fcbafbe[Oenz(Zbbyranne%|:%s)[[()])-)Ig|norm Vg?"
    ----------------------------------------
    __END__
    ----------------------------------------
    If you liked these please return to www.vim.org
    and vote for this tip (It does encourage me!!)
    Tip 305
    ----------------------------------------
    Please email any errors, tips etc to
    david@rayninfo.co.uk
    ----------------------------------------
    updated version at http://www.rayninfo.co.uk/vimtips.html
    ----------------------------------------
    # Information Sources
    ----------------------------------------
    www.vim.org
    comp.editors "VIM" newsgroup
    VIM Webring
    Vim Book
    Searchable VIM Doc
    VIM FAQ
    VimTips in Chinese
    ----------------------------------------
    # : commands to neutralise < for HTML display and publish
    # use yy@" to execute following commands
    :w!|sav! vimtips.html|:/^__BEGIN__/,/^__END__/s#<#\<#g|:w!|/tip[f]tp/|:!tipftp
    ----------------------------------------
  • 2005-07-06
    http://blog.china-pub.com/more.asp?name=linxd&id=10929 # note 015 : Best of Vim Tips                                          current
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    David Rayner (zzapper) 15 Years of Vi + 3 years of Vim and still learning
    11Mar05 : Last Update
     

    posted on 2006-08-10 18:18 杨粼波 阅读(1636) 评论(0)  编辑 收藏 引用 所属分类: 学习笔记


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