华剑缘
一切都在这个过程中获得,将那些目标埋藏于心中
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2005图灵奖获得者产生
      3月1日,ACM(美国计算机学会)决定将2005年图灵奖颁发给Peter Naur,以表彰他在设计Algol 60语言上的贡献。由于其定义的清晰性,Algol 60成为了许多现代程序设计语言的原型。在语法描述中广泛使用的BNF范式,其中的“N”便是来自Peter Naur的名字。图灵奖被称为“计算科学界的诺贝尔奖”,它创立于1960年,现在的奖金10万美元,由Intel公司赞助。  
      详文如下:
      
SOFTWARE PIONEER PETER NAUR WINS ACM'S TURING AWARD

Dane's Creative Genius Revolutionized Computer Language Design

New York, March 01, 2006  --  The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) has named Peter Naur the winner of the 2005 A.M. Turing Award. The award is for Naur's pioneering work on defining the Algol 60 programming language. Algol 60 is the model for many later programming languages, including those that are indispensable software engineering tools today. The Turing Award, considered the "Nobel Prize of Computing" was first awarded in 1966, and is named for British mathematician Alan M. Turing. It carries a $100,000 prize, with financial support provided by Intel Corporation.

Dr. Naur was editor in 1960 of the hugely influential "Report on the Algorithmic Language Algol 60." He is recognized for the report's elegance, uniformity and coherence, and credited as an important contributor to the language's power and simplicity. The report made pioneering use of what later became known as Backus-Naur Form (BNF) to define the syntax of programs. BNF is now the standard way to define a computer language. Naur is also cited for his contribution to compiler design and to the art and practice of computer programming.

"Dr. Naur's ALGOL 60 embodied the notion of elegant simplicity for algorithmic expression," said Justin Rattner, Intel senior fellow and Chief Technology Officer. "Over the years, programming languages have become bloated with features and functions that have made them more difficult to learn and less effective. This award should encourage future language designers who are addressing today's biggest programming challenges, such as general-purpose, multi-threaded computation, to achieve that same level of elegance and simplicity that was the hallmark of ALGOL 60."

Contributions Signal Birth of Computing Science

In 2002, former Turing Award winner Edsger Dijkstra characterized the development of Algol 60 as "an absolute miracle" that signaled the birth of what he called "computing science" because it showed the first ways in which automatic computing could and should become a topic of academic concern. The development of Algol 60 was the result of an exceptionally talented group of people, including several who were later named Turing Award winners.

Dr. Naur's contribution to Algol 60, was seminal. John Backus, another former Turing Award winner, acknowledged Naur as the driving intellectual force behind the definition of Algol 60. He commented that Naur's editing of the Algol report and his comprehensive preparation for the January 1960 meeting in which Algol was presented "was the stuff that really made Algol 60 the language that it is, and it wouldn't have even come about, had he not done that."

Before publication of the Algol 60 Report, computer languages were informally defined by their prose manuals and the compiler code itself. The report, with its use of BNF to define the syntax, and carefully chosen prose to define the semantics, was concise, powerful, and unambiguous.

The 17-page Algol 60 Report presented the complete definition of an elegant, transparent language designed for communication among humans as well as with computers. It was deliberately independent of the properties of any particular computer. The new language was a major challenge to compiler writers. Dr. Naur went on to co-author the GIER Algol Compiler (for the transistorized electronic computer developed in Denmark known as GIER), one of the first compilers to deal fully and correctly with the language's powerful procedure mechanism.

"Dr. Naur's contribution was a watershed in the computing field, and transformed the way we define programming languages," said James Gray of Microsoft Research, and Chair of the 2005 Turing Committee. "Many of the programming constructs we take for granted today were introduced in the Algol Report, which introduced a concise block-structured language that improved the way we express algorithms."

Dr. Naur was instrumental in establishing software engineering as a discipline. He made pioneering contributions to methodologies for writing correct programs through his work on assertions that enable programmers to state their assumptions, and on structured programming. "His work, though formal and precise, displays an exceptional understanding of the limits and uses of formalism and precision," said Gray. Through these activities, and his development of an influential computer science curriculum, Dr. Naur contributed fundamental components of today's computing knowledge and skills.

Early Experience in Practical Calculations and Applications

Dr. Naur began his scientific pursuits as an astronomer, where he was involved in computations of the orbits of comets and minor planets. He obtained a magister of science degree (the equivalent of a master's degree) from Copenhagen University in 1949. He later returned there to earn a doctorate in astronomy in 1957. During the 1950-51 academic year, Dr. Naur studied astronomy at King's College in Cambridge, U.K., and came to the U.S. to further his work in the field. This work involved using early computers (starting with EDSAC, the world's first practical stored program electronic computer) for his astronomical calculations. In 1953, he returned to Denmark and served as a scientific assistant at Copenhagen Observatory.

In 1959, he joined the staff of the compiler design group at Regnecentralen, the first Danish computer company. There he organized the Algol Bulletin and was editor of the 13-person international Algol 60 team's report that defined Algol 60. He became a professor at the Copenhagen University Institute of Datalogy in 1969, retiring in 1998.

Dr. Naur was awarded the G. A. Hagemann Gold Medal from the Danish Technical University in 1963, the Jens Rosenkjaer Prize from the Danish Radio in 1966, and the Computer Pioneer Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in 1986.
ACM will present the Turing Award at the annual ACM Awards Banquet on May 20, 2006, at the Westin St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco, CA.

About the A.M. Turing Award

The A.M. Turing Award was named for Alan M. Turing, the British mathematician who articulated the mathematical foundation and limits of computing, and who was a key contributor to the Allied cryptanalysis of the German Enigma cipher during World War II. Since its inception, the Turing Award has honored the computer scientists and engineers who created the systems and underlying theoretical foundations that have propelled the information technology industry. For additional information, please see the A. M. Turing Awards site.

About ACM

ACM, the Association for Computing Machinery (http://www.acm.org), is an educational and scientific society uniting the world's computing educators, researchers and professionals to inspire dialogue, share resources and address the field's challenges. ACM strengthens the profession's collective voice through strong leadership, promotion of the highest standards, and recognition of technical excellence. ACM supports the professional growth of its members by providing opportunities for life-long learning, career development, and professional networking.
posted on 2006-04-15 16:52 华剑缘 阅读(837) 评论(0)  编辑 收藏 引用

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