elva

精妙SQL语句

说明:复制表(只复制结构,源表名:a 新表名:b) 

SQL: select * into b from a where 1<>1 

说明:拷贝表(拷贝数据,源表名:a 目标表名:b) 

SQL: insert into b(a, b, c) select d,e,f from b; 

说明:显示文章、提交人和最后回复时间 

SQL: select a.title,a.username,b.adddate from table a,(select max(adddate) adddate from table where table.title=a.title) b 

说明:外连接查询(表名1:a 表名2:b) 

SQL: select a.a, a.b, a.c, b.c, b.d, b.f from a LEFT OUT JOIN b ON a.a = b.c 

说明:日程安排提前五分钟提醒 

SQL: select * from 日程安排 where datediff('minute',f开始时间,getdate())>5 

说明:两张关联表,删除主表中已经在副表中没有的信息 

SQL: 

delete from info where not exists ( select * from infobz where info.infid=infobz.infid ) 

说明:-- 

SQL: 

SELECT A.NUM, A.NAME, B.UPD_DATE, B.PREV_UPD_DATE 

FROM TABLE1, 

(SELECT X.NUM, X.UPD_DATE, Y.UPD_DATE PREV_UPD_DATE 

FROM (SELECT NUM, UPD_DATE, INBOUND_QTY, STOCK_ONHAND 

FROM TABLE2 

WHERE TO_CHAR(UPD_DATE,'YYYY/MM') = TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, 'YYYY/MM')) X, 

(SELECT NUM, UPD_DATE, STOCK_ONHAND 

FROM TABLE2 

WHERE TO_CHAR(UPD_DATE,'YYYY/MM') = 

TO_CHAR(TO_DATE(TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, 'YYYY/MM') || '/01','YYYY/MM/DD') - 1, 'YYYY/MM') ) Y, 

WHERE X.NUM = Y.NUM (+) 

AND X.INBOUND_QTY + NVL(Y.STOCK_ONHAND,0) <> X.STOCK_ONHAND ) B 

WHERE A.NUM = B.NUM 

说明:-- 

SQL: 

select * from studentinfo where not exists(select * from student where studentinfo.id=student.id) and 系名称='"&strdepartmentname&"' and 专业名称='"&strprofessionname&"' order by 性别,生源地,高考总成绩 

说明: 

从数据库中去一年的各单位电话费统计(电话费定额贺电化肥清单两个表来源) 

SQL: 

SELECT a.userper, a.tel, a.standfee, TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'yyyy') AS telyear, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '01', a.factration)) AS JAN, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '02', a.factration)) AS FRI, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '03', a.factration)) AS MAR, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '04', a.factration)) AS APR, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '05', a.factration)) AS MAY, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '06', a.factration)) AS JUE, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '07', a.factration)) AS JUL, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '08', a.factration)) AS AGU, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '09', a.factration)) AS SEP, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '10', a.factration)) AS OCT, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '11', a.factration)) AS NOV, 

SUM(decode(TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'mm'), '12', a.factration)) AS DEC 

FROM (SELECT a.userper, a.tel, a.standfee, b.telfeedate, b.factration 

FROM TELFEESTAND a, TELFEE b 

WHERE a.tel = b.telfax) a 

GROUP BY a.userper, a.tel, a.standfee, TO_CHAR(a.telfeedate, 'yyyy') 

说明:四表联查问题: 

SQL: select * from a left inner join b on a.a=b.b right inner join c on a.a=c.c inner join d on a.a=d.d where ..... 

说明:得到表中最小的未使用的ID号 

SQL: 

SELECT (CASE WHEN EXISTS(SELECT * FROM Handle b WHERE b.HandleID = 1) THEN MIN(HandleID) + 1 ELSE 1 END) as HandleID 

FROM Handle 

WHERE NOT HandleID IN (SELECT a.HandleID - 1 FROM Handle a)

====================================

SQL语句技巧
1、一个SQL语句的问题:行列转换
   select * from v_temp
上面的视图结果如下:
user_name role_name
-------------------------
系统管理员 管理员
feng 管理员
feng 一般用户
test 一般用户
想把结果变成这样:
user_name role_name
---------------------------
系统管理员 管理员
feng 管理员,一般用户
test 一般用户
===================
create table a_test(name varchar(20),role2 varchar(20))
insert into a_test values('李','管理員')
insert into a_test values('張','管理員')
insert into a_test values('張','一般用戶')
insert into a_test values('常','一般用戶')

create function join_str(@content varchar(100))
returns varchar(2000)
as
begin
declare @str varchar(2000)
set @str=''
select @str=@str+','+rtrim(role2) from a_test where [name]=@content
select @str=right(@str,len(@str)-1)
return @str
end
go

--调用:
select [name],dbo.join_str([name]) role2 from a_test group by [name]

--select distinct name,dbo.uf_test(name) from a_test

2、求助!快速比较结构相同的两表
结构相同的两表,一表有记录3万条左右,一表有记录2万条左右,我怎样快速查找两表的不同记录?
============================
给你一个测试方法,从northwind中的orders表取数据。
select * into n1 from orders
select * into n2 from orders

select * from n1
select * from n2

--添加主键,然后修改n1中若干字段的若干条
alter table n1 add constraint pk_n1_id primary key (OrderID)
alter table n2 add constraint pk_n2_id primary key (OrderID)

select OrderID from (select * from n1
union
select * from n2) a group by OrderID having count(*) > 1

应该可以,而且将不同的记录的ID显示出来。
下面的适用于双方记录一样的情况,

select * from n1 where orderid in
(
select OrderID from (select * from n1
union
select * from n2) a group by OrderID having count(*) > 1
)
至于双方互不存在的记录是比较好处理的
--删除n1,n2中若干条记录
delete from n1 where orderID in ('10728','10730')
delete from n2 where orderID in ('11000','11001')

--*************************************************************
-- 双方都有该记录却不完全相同
select * from n1 where orderid in
(
select OrderID from (select * from n1
union
select * from n2) a group by OrderID having count(*) > 1
)
union
--n2中存在但在n1中不存的在10728,10730
select * from n1 where OrderID not in (select OrderID from n2)
union
--n1中存在但在n2中不存的在11000,11001
select * from n2 where OrderID not in (select OrderID from n1)
3.
四种方法取表里n到m条纪录:

1.
select top m * into 临时表(或表变量) from tablename order by columnname -- 将top m笔插入
set rowcount n
select * from 表变量 order by columnname desc


2.
select top n * from
(select top m * from tablename order by columnname) a
order by columnname desc


3.如果tablename里没有其他identity列,那么:
select identity(int) id0,* into #temp from tablename

取n到m条的语句为:
select * from #temp where id0 >=n and id0 <= m

如果你在执行select identity(int) id0,* into #temp from tablename这条语句的时候报错,那是因为你的DB中间的select into/bulkcopy属性没有打开要先执行:
exec sp_dboption 你的DB名字,'select into/bulkcopy',true


4.如果表里有identity属性,那么简单:
select * from tablename where identitycol between n and m
5.如何删除一个表中重复的记录?
create table a_dist(id int,name varchar(20))

insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')
insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')
insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')
insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')

exec up_distinct 'a_dist','id'

select * from a_dist

create procedure up_distinct(@t_name varchar(30),@f_key varchar(30))
--f_key表示是分組字段﹐即主鍵字段
as
begin
declare @max integer,@id varchar(30) ,@sql varchar(7999) ,@type integer
select @sql = 'declare cur_rows cursor for select '+@f_key+' ,count(*) from ' +@t_name +' group by ' +@f_key +' having count(*) > 1'
exec(@sql)
open cur_rows
fetch cur_rows into @id,@max
while @@fetch_status=0
begin
select @max = @max -1
set rowcount @max
select @type = xtype from syscolumns where id=object_id(@t_name) and name=@f_key
if @type=56
select @sql = 'delete from '+@t_name+' where ' + @f_key+' = '+ @id
if @type=167
select @sql = 'delete from '+@t_name+' where ' + @f_key+' = '+''''+ @id +''''
exec(@sql)
fetch cur_rows into @id,@max
end
close cur_rows
deallocate cur_rows
set rowcount 0
end

select * from systypes
select * from syscolumns where id = object_id('a_dist')

6.查询数据的最大排序问题(只能用一条语句写)
CREATE TABLE hard (qu char (11) ,co char (11) ,je numeric(3, 0))

insert into hard values ('A','1',3)
insert into hard values ('A','2',4)
insert into hard values ('A','4',2)
insert into hard values ('A','6',9)
insert into hard values ('B','1',4)
insert into hard values ('B','2',5)
insert into hard values ('B','3',6)
insert into hard values ('C','3',4)
insert into hard values ('C','6',7)
insert into hard values ('C','2',3)


要求查询出来的结果如下:

qu co je
----------- ----------- -----
A 6 9
A 2 4
B 3 6
B 2 5
C 6 7
C 3 4


就是要按qu分组,每组中取je最大的前2位!!
而且只能用一句sql语句!!!
select * from hard a where je in (select top 2 je from hard b where a.qu=b.qu order by je)
7.求删除重复记录的sql语句?
怎样把具有相同字段的纪录删除,只留下一条。
例如,表test里有id,name字段
如果有name相同的记录 只留下一条,其余的删除。
name的内容不定,相同的记录数不定。
有没有这样的sql语句?
==============================
A:一个完整的解决方案:

将重复的记录记入temp1表:
select [标志字段id],count(*) into temp1 from [表名]
group by [标志字段id]
having count(*)>1

2、将不重复的记录记入temp1表:
insert temp1
select [标志字段id],count(*) from [表名]
group by [标志字段id]
having count(*)=1

3、作一个包含所有不重复记录的表:
select * into temp2 from [表名]
where 标志字段id in(select 标志字段id from temp1)

4、删除重复表:
delete [表名]

5、恢复表:
insert [表名]
select * from temp2

6、删除临时表:
drop table temp1
drop table temp2
================================
B:
create table a_dist(id int,name varchar(20))

insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')
insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')
insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')
insert into a_dist values(1,'abc')

exec up_distinct 'a_dist','id'

select * from a_dist

create procedure up_distinct(@t_name varchar(30),@f_key varchar(30))
--f_key表示是分組字段﹐即主鍵字段
as
begin
declare @max integer,@id varchar(30) ,@sql varchar(7999) ,@type integer
select @sql = 'declare cur_rows cursor for select '+@f_key+' ,count(*) from ' +@t_name +' group by ' +@f_key +' having count(*) > 1'
exec(@sql)
open cur_rows
fetch cur_rows into @id,@max
while @@fetch_status=0
begin
select @max = @max -1
set rowcount @max
select @type = xtype from syscolumns where id=object_id(@t_name) and name=@f_key
if @type=56
select @sql = 'delete from '+@t_name+' where ' + @f_key+' = '+ @id
if @type=167
select @sql = 'delete from '+@t_name+' where ' + @f_key+' = '+''''+ @id +''''
exec(@sql)
fetch cur_rows into @id,@max
end
close cur_rows
deallocate cur_rows
set rowcount 0
end

select * from systypes
select * from syscolumns where id = object_id('a_dist')



SQL import& export command

EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'bcp SettleDB.dbo.shanghu out c:\temp1.xls -c -q -S"GNETDATA/GNETDATA" -U"sa" -P""'

/*********** 导入Excel
SELECT *
FROM OpenDataSource( 'Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',
'Data Source="c:\test.xls";User ID=Admin;Password=;Extended properties=Excel 5.0')...xactions

/*动态文件名
declare @fn varchar(20),@s varchar(1000)
set @fn = 'c:\test.xls'
set @s ='''Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0'',
''Data Source="'+@fn+'";User ID=Admin;Password=;Extended properties=Excel 5.0'''
set @s = 'SELECT * FROM OpenDataSource ('+@s+')...sheet1$'
exec(@s)
*/

SELECT cast(cast(科目编号 as numeric(10,2)) as nvarchar(255))+' ' 转换后的别名
FROM OpenDataSource( 'Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',
'Data Source="c:\test.xls";User ID=Admin;Password=;Extended properties=Excel 5.0')...xactions

/********************** EXCEL导到远程SQL
insert OPENDATASOURCE(
'SQLOLEDB',
'Data Source=远程ip;User ID=sa;Password=密码'
).库名.dbo.表名 (列名1,列名2)
SELECT 列名1,列名2
FROM OpenDataSource( 'Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',
'Data Source="c:\test.xls";User ID=Admin;Password=;Extended properties=Excel 5.0')...xactions

/** 导入文本文件
EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'bcp dbname..tablename in c:\DT.txt -c -Sservername -Usa -Ppassword'

/** 导出文本文件
EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'bcp dbname..tablename out c:\DT.txt -c -Sservername -Usa -Ppassword'

EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'bcp "Select * from dbname..tablename" queryout c:\DT.txt -c -Sservername -Usa -Ppassword'

导出到TXT文本,用逗号分开
exec master..xp_cmdshell 'bcp "库名..表名" out "d:\tt.txt" -c -t ,-U sa -P password'

BULK INSERT 库名..表名
FROM 'c:\test.txt'
WITH (
FIELDTERMINATOR = ';',
ROWTERMINATOR = '\n'
)

--/* dBase IV文件
select * from
OPENROWSET('MICROSOFT.JET.OLEDB.4.0'
,'dBase IV;HDR=NO;IMEX=2;DATABASE=C:\','select * from [客户资料4.dbf]')
--*/

--/* dBase III文件
select * from
OPENROWSET('MICROSOFT.JET.OLEDB.4.0'
,'dBase III;HDR=NO;IMEX=2;DATABASE=C:\','select * from [客户资料3.dbf]')
--*/

--/* FoxPro 数据库
select * from openrowset('MSDASQL',
'Driver=Microsoft Visual FoxPro Driver;SourceType=DBF;SourceDB=c:\',
'select * from [aa.DBF]')
--*/

/**************导入DBF文件****************/
select * from openrowset('MSDASQL',
'Driver=Microsoft Visual FoxPro Driver;
SourceDB=e:\VFP98\data;
SourceType=DBF',
'select * from customer where country != "USA" order by country')
go
/***************** 导出到DBF ***************/
如果要导出数据到已经生成结构(即现存的)FOXPRO表中,可以直接用下面的SQL语句

insert into openrowset('MSDASQL',
'Driver=Microsoft Visual FoxPro Driver;SourceType=DBF;SourceDB=c:\',
'select * from [aa.DBF]')
select * from 表

说明:
SourceDB=c:\ 指定foxpro表所在的文件夹
aa.DBF 指定foxpro表的文件名.



/*************导出到Access********************/
insert into openrowset('Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',
'x:\A.mdb';'admin';'',A表) select * from 数据库名..B表

/*************导入Access********************/
insert into B表 selet * from openrowset('Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',
'x:\A.mdb';'admin';'',A表)

文件名为参数
declare @fname varchar(20)
set @fname = 'd:\test.mdb'
exec('SELECT a.* FROM opendatasource(''Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0'',
'''+@fname+''';''admin'';'''', topics) as a ')

SELECT *
FROM OpenDataSource( 'Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',
'Data Source="f:\northwind.mdb";Jet OLEDB:Database Password=123;User ID=Admin;Password=;')...产品

********************* 导入 xml 文件

DECLARE @idoc int
DECLARE @doc varchar(1000)
--sample XML document
SET @doc ='
<root>
<Customer cid= "C1" name="Janine" city="Issaquah">
<Order oid="O1" date="1/20/1996" amount="3.5" />
<Order oid="O2" date="4/30/1997" amount="13.4">Customer was very satisfied
</Order>
</Customer>
<Customer cid="C2" name="Ursula" city="Oelde" >
<Order oid="O3" date="7/14/1999" amount="100" note="Wrap it blue
white red">
<Urgency>Important</Urgency>
Happy Customer.
</Order>
<Order oid="O4" date="1/20/1996" amount="10000"/>
</Customer>
</root>
'
-- Create an internal representation of the XML document.
EXEC sp_xml_preparedocument @idoc OUTPUT, @doc

-- Execute a SELECT statement using OPENXML rowset provider.
SELECT *
FROM OPENXML (@idoc, '/root/Customer/Order', 1)
WITH (oid char(5),
amount float,
comment ntext 'text()')
EXEC sp_xml_removedocument @idoc



???????

/**********************Excel导到Txt****************************************/
想用
select * into opendatasource(...) from opendatasource(...)
实现将一个Excel文件内容导入到一个文本文件

假设Excel中有两列,第一列为姓名,第二列为很行帐号(16位)
且银行帐号导出到文本文件后分两部分,前8位和后8位分开。

邹健:
如果要用你上面的语句插入的话,文本文件必须存在,而且有一行:姓名,银行账号1,银行账号2
然后就可以用下面的语句进行插入
注意文件名和目录根据你的实际情况进行修改.

insert into
opendatasource('MICROSOFT.JET.OLEDB.4.0'
,'Text;HDR=Yes;DATABASE=C:\'
)...[aa#txt]
--,aa#txt)
--*/
select 姓名,银行账号1=left(银行账号,8),银行账号2=right(银行账号,8)
from
opendatasource('MICROSOFT.JET.OLEDB.4.0'
,'Excel 5.0;HDR=YES;IMEX=2;DATABASE=c:\a.xls'
--,Sheet1$)
)...[Sheet1$]



如果你想直接插入并生成文本文件,就要用bcp

declare @sql varchar(8000),@tbname varchar(50)

--首先将excel表内容导入到一个全局临时表
select @tbname='[##temp'+cast(newid() as varchar(40))+']'
,@sql='select 姓名,银行账号1=left(银行账号,8),银行账号2=right(银行账号,8)
into '+@tbname+' from
opendatasource(''MICROSOFT.JET.OLEDB.4.0''
,''Excel 5.0;HDR=YES;IMEX=2;DATABASE=c:\a.xls''
)...[Sheet1$]'
exec(@sql)

--然后用bcp从全局临时表导出到文本文件
set @sql='bcp "'+@tbname+'" out "c:\aa.txt" /S"(local)" /P"" /c'
exec master..xp_cmdshell @sql

--删除临时表
exec('drop table '+@tbname)

/********************导整个数据库*********************************************/

用bcp实现的存储过程

/*
实现数据导入/导出的存储过程
根据不同的参数,可以实现导入/导出整个数据库/单个表
调用示例:
--导出调用示例
----导出单个表
exec file2table 'zj','','','xzkh_sa..地区资料','c:\zj.txt',1
----导出整个数据库
exec file2table 'zj','','','xzkh_sa','C:\docman',1

--导入调用示例
----导入单个表
exec file2table 'zj','','','xzkh_sa..地区资料','c:\zj.txt',0
----导入整个数据库
exec file2table 'zj','','','xzkh_sa','C:\docman',0

*/
if exists(select 1 from sysobjects where name='File2Table' and objectproperty(id,'IsProcedure')=1)
drop procedure File2Table
go
create procedure File2Table
@servername varchar(200) --服务器名
,@username varchar(200) --用户名,如果用NT验证方式,则为空''
,@password varchar(200) --密码
,@tbname varchar(500) --数据库.dbo.表名,如果不指定:.dbo.表名,则导出数据库的所有用户表
,@filename varchar(1000) --导入/导出路径/文件名,如果@tbname参数指明是导出整个数据库,则这个参数是文件存放路径,文件名自动用表名.txt
,@isout bit --1为导出,0为导入
as
declare @sql varchar(8000)

if @tbname like '%.%.%' --如果指定了表名,则直接导出单个表
begin
set @sql='bcp '+@tbname
+case when @isout=1 then ' out ' else ' in ' end
+' "'+@filename+'" /w'
+' /S '+@servername
+case when isnull(@username,'')='' then '' else ' /U '+@username end
+' /P '+isnull(@password,'')
exec master..xp_cmdshell @sql
end
else
begin --导出整个数据库,定义游标,取出所有的用户表
declare @m_tbname varchar(250)
if right(@filename,1)<>'\' set @filename=@filename+'\'

set @m_tbname='declare #tb cursor for select name from '+@tbname+'..sysobjects where xtype=''U'''
exec(@m_tbname)
open #tb
fetch next from #tb into @m_tbname
while @@fetch_status=0
begin
set @sql='bcp '+@tbname+'..'+@m_tbname
+case when @isout=1 then ' out ' else ' in ' end
+' "'+@filename+@m_tbname+'.txt " /w'
+' /S '+@servername
+case when isnull(@username,'')='' then '' else ' /U '+@username end
+' /P '+isnull(@password,'')
exec master..xp_cmdshell @sql
fetch next from #tb into @m_tbname
end
close #tb
deallocate #tb
end
go

/************* Oracle **************/
EXEC sp_addlinkedserver 'OracleSvr',
'Oracle 7.3',
'MSDAORA',
'ORCLDB'
GO

delete from openquery(mailser,'select * from yulin')

select * from openquery(mailser,'select * from yulin')

update openquery(mailser,'select * from yulin where id=15')set disorder=555,catago=888

insert into openquery(mailser,'select disorder,catago from yulin')values(333,777)



补充:

对于用bcp导出,是没有字段名的.

用openrowset导出,需要事先建好表.

用openrowset导入,除ACCESS及EXCEL外,均不支持非本机数据导入
删除

posted on 2007-12-06 11:19 叶子 阅读(412) 评论(0)  编辑 收藏 引用 所属分类: SQl


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