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树莓派3上安装使用centos 7.4

Posted on 2018-03-11 15:09 eamon 阅读(361) 评论(0)  编辑 收藏 引用 所属分类: Linux系统

一、系统安装

目前centos官方只有32位的版本,64位还没有推出,下载地址:

http://mirror.centos.org/altarch/7/isos/armhfp/

 

最新版本为CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)。选择Pi3的版本,压缩包格式为XZ,下载后使用7-Zip解压。解压后为一个3GB 的img格式的映像文件,使用USB Image Tool软件,将文件写入TF卡中,至少为4GB。

打开软件后点击Restore,选择映像文件。

用tf卡启动机器,默认的root密码为centos。

二、系统配置

执行#/usr/bin/rootfs-expand,使用系统可以使用整个卡的空间。

关闭防火墙和selinux:

#systemctl disable firewalld

#vi /etc/selinux/config

SELINUX=disabled

修改主机名:

#vi /etc/hostname

 

创建缺失文件,使network服务正常启动:

#touch /etc/sysconfig/network

配置网卡地址,有线和无线网卡:

#cat ifcfg-eth0

TYPE=Ethernet

PROXY_METHOD=none

BROWSER_ONLY=no

DEFROUTE=yes

IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no

NAME=eth0

DEVICE=eth0

ONBOOT=yes

BOOTPROTO=static

IPADDR=192.168.4.2

GATEWAY=192.168.4.1

NETMASK=255.255.255.0

 

#vi ifcfg-wlan0

DEVICE=wlan0

NAME=wlan0

TYPE=Ethernet

ONBOOT=yes

NM_CONTROLLED=no

BOOTPROTO=static

IPADDR=192.168.5.1

NETMASK=255.255.255.0

 

配置DNS服务器地址:

[root@rpi3 etc]# cat  resolv.conf

# Generated by NetworkManager

nameserver 192.168.4.1

 

设置地区和时区,时间同步:

[root@rpi3 etc]#localectl set-locale LANG=zh_CN.UTF-8

[root@rpi3 etc]#ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime

 

systemctl disable NetworkManager

systemctl disable kdump   当前内核不支持

#yum update

#reboot

三、配置网络打印机

安装cups软件,共享打印机:

#yum install cups

发现https无法访问,则需要安装openssl。

#yum install openssl

 

修改配置文件:

vi /etc/cups/cupsd.conf

#Listen localhost:631

Port 631

 

在/,/admin和/admin/conf下添加:

Allow From 192.168.4.0/24

Allow all

 

用浏览器打开进行配置:https://192.168.4.2:631/admin

选中共享打印机和Internet打印。

 


输入root用户名和密码,

继续,

继续,由于仅仅通过网络进行打印,Make选择Raw,客户端需要自行安装打印机的驱动程序。

点击“Add Printer”,下一页会提供默认选项,这个不需设置:

打印机配置文件,存放在/etc/cups/printers.conf 中,可备份。

 

可以在Windows客户端使用

http://192.168.4.2:631/printers/EPSON_L310_Series

添加网络打印机。

四、配置随身WIFI:

#yum install hostapd-2.5-5.fc25.armv7hl.rpm

#yum install dnsmasq

 

然后在/etc/dnsmasq.conf末加入(自己修改IP和网段,这个文件是已存在的,很详细的配置文件,但是所有行都加入了#号注释掉)

interface=wlan0

dhcp-range=192.168.5.50,192.168.5.150,12h

 

修改hostapd配置:

#cd /etc/hostapd

#mv hostapd.conf hostapd.conf.bak

#cp /usr/share/doc/hostapd/hostapd.conf ./

 

#vi hostapd.conf

 

driver=nl80211

ssid=rpi3-ap

channel=11

auth_algs=1

wpa=2

wpa_passphrase=wifi_mimaXXXX

wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK

rsn_pairwise=CCMP

 

 

开启IP包转发:

#cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

#echo "net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1" >>/usr/lib/sysctl.d/50-default.conf

# sysctl -p            ###如不生效重启一下OS

 

开启内核防火墙转发:

yum install iptables-services

systemctl enable iptables

 

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o wlan0 -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

iptables -A FORWARD -i wlan0 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT

 

iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables

 

systemctl start iptables

iptables --list

 

 

 

开启服务:

systemctl enable hostapd

systemctl enable dnsmasq

reboot

五、配置ftp,samba

#yum install samba

 

vi /etc/security/limits.conf

添加行:  *   -   nofile 16384

 

cd /etc/samba

cp -a smb.conf smb.conf.bak

cat smb.conf.example | grep -v '^#' | grep -v '^$' > smb.conf

 

vi smb.conf

printcap name = /etc/printcap

虚拟用户配置:

 

在全局下写入username map = /etc/samba/usermap这条参数

echo 'root = administrator  admin' >> usermap

 

[share]

        comment = Share Directories

        path = /mnt/share

        public = no

        writable = yes

        valid users = root

 

# smbpasswd -a root  设置密码即可从windows访问共享。

 

 

配置vs-ftp

yum install vsftpd

 

创建虚拟用户:

[root@rpi3 vsftpd]# cat v_ftpuser.txt

ftpuser

123456

#db_load -T -t hash -f /etc/vsftpd/v_ftpuser.txt v_ftpuser.db

chmod 700 v_ftpuser.db

 

配置PAM认证文件,/etc/pam.d/vsftpd行首加入如下两行(注释其他行)

auth      required        pam_userdb.so  db=/etc/vsftpd/v_ftpuser

account  required        pam_userdb.so  db=/etc/vsftpd/v_ftpuser

 

创建虚拟用户的权限和根目录:

#mkdir v_user_conf

#cd v_user_conf

[root@rpi3 v_user_conf]# cat ftpuser

local_root=/mnt/share

write_enable=YES

anon_world_readable_only=YES

anon_upload_enable=YES

anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES

anon_other_write_enable=YES

 

修改vsftp配置文件:

[root@rpi3 vsftpd]# cat vsftpd.conf | grep -v '#'

anonymous_enable=NO

local_enable=YES

write_enable=YES

local_umask=022

dirmessage_enable=YES

xferlog_enable=YES

connect_from_port_20=YES

xferlog_std_format=YES

ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.

chroot_local_user=YES

allow_writeable_chroot=YES

 

listen=YES

listen_ipv6=NO

 

pam_service_name=vsftpd

userlist_enable=NO

userlist_file=/etc/vsftpd/user_list

tcp_wrappers=YES

guest_enable=YES

guest_username=root

user_config_dir=/etc/vsftpd/v_user_conf

virtual_use_local_privs=YES

 

pasv_enable=YES

pasv_min_port=60000

pasv_max_port=60100

其他文件:

[root@rpi3 vsftpd]# cat ftpusers

# Users that are not allowed to login via ftp

#root

bin

daemon

adm

lp

sync

shutdown

halt

mail

news

uucp

operator

games

nobody

 

[root@rpi3 vsftpd]# cat user_list

# vsftpd userlist

# If userlist_deny=NO, only allow users in this file

# If userlist_deny=YES (default), never allow users in this file, and

# do not even prompt for a password.

# Note that the default vsftpd pam config also checks /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers

# for users that are denied.

root

#bin

#daemon

#adm

#lp

#sync

#shutdown

#halt

#mail

#news

#uucp

#operator

#games

#nobody

六、配置Nginx和PHP

安装nginx:

#yum install nginx-1.10.1-1.fc25.armv7hl.rpm nginx-filesystem-1.10.1-1.fc25.noarch.rpm nginx-mimetypes-2.1.47-1.fc25.noarch.rpm

#systemctl enable nginx

#systemctl start nginx

 

#cd /etc/nginx

#cp -a nginx.conf nginx.conf.bak

#vi nginx.conf

location ~ \.php$ {

        root           /usr/share/nginx/html;

        fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;

        fastcgi_index  index.php;

        fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

        include        fastcgi_params;

    }

安装PHP插件:

yum install php-fpm php php-mbstring

systemctl start php-fpm

systemctl enable php-fpm

安装MYSQL插件:

使用MySQL Native Driver,替代 MySQL (Original) — Original MySQL API

yum  remove php-mysql

yum   install  php-mysqlnd

 

默认的WEB网站目录:

/usr/share/nginx/html

 

php-fpm 默认采用tcp的协议,对于负载较小的网站,也可以采用unix socket方式,需要修改/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf,

将listen = 127.0.0.1:9000改为

listen = /var/run/php-fpm.sock

同时,nginx.conf也要讲将

fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;  改为:

fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fpm.sock;

七、配置MariaDB数据库

#yum install mariadb mariadb-server

#systemctl enable mariadb

#systemctl start mariadb

MariaDB的相关简单配置

#mysql_secure_installation

首先是设置密码,会提示先输入密码

Enter current password for root (enter for none):<–初次运行直接回车

设置密码

Set root password? [Y/n] <– 是否设置root用户密码,输入y并回车或直接回车
New password: <– 设置root用户的密码
Re-enter new password: <– 再输入一次你设置的密码

其他配置回车即可。

#mysql -u root -p 测试。

 

直接创建用户并授权的命令

mysql>grant all privileges on *.* to username@localhost indentified by 'password';

 

授予外网登陆权限 

mysql>grant all privileges on *.* to username@'%' identified by 'password';

 

授予权限并且可以授权

mysql>grant all privileges on *.* to username@'hostname' identified by 'password' with grant option;

 

create user 'test'@'%' identified by '123456';

 

mysql -u root -p 登陆root帐号:

create user dbuser@localhost identified by 'db123';

create user dbuser@%  identified by 'db123';

 

grant all privileges on *.* to dbuser@'%' identified by 'db123';

grant all privileges on *.* to dbuser@localhost identified by 'db123';

show grants for 'dbuser'@'%';

create database mydb;

create table person(id int not null,    name varchar(30),    constraint pk__person primary key(id));

insert into person values(2,'coco');

 

测试PHP访问数据库:

使用mysqli有面向过程和面向对象两种方式。

[root@rpi3 test]# cat mysqli.php

<?php

$db_host = 'localhost';

$db_name = 'mydb';

$db_user = 'dbuser';

$db_pwd = 'db123';

 

//use object style

$mysqli = new mysqli($db_host, $db_user, $db_pwd, $db_name);

if ($mysqli->connect_errno) {

    echo "Sorry, this website is experiencing problems.";

    echo "Error: Failed to make a MySQL connection, here is why: \n";

    echo "Errno: " . $mysqli->connect_errno . "\n";

    echo "Error: " . $mysqli->connect_error . "\n";   

    exit;

}

$mysqli->set_charset("utf8");

//或者 $mysqli->query("set names 'utf8'")

// Perform an SQL query

$sql = "SELECT *  FROM person";

if (!$result = $mysqli->query($sql)) {

    echo "Sorry, the website is experiencing problems.";   

    echo "Query: " . $sql . "\n";

    echo "Errno: " . $mysqli->errno . "\n";

    echo "Error: " . $mysqli->error . "\n";

    exit;

}

if ($result->num_rows === 0) {

    echo "We could not find a result ";

}

$actor = $result->fetch_assoc();

echo "Sometimes I see " . $actor['id'] . " " . $actor['name'] . " .";

// Now, let's fetch five random actors and output their names to a list.

$sql = "SELECT id, name FROM person ORDER BY rand() LIMIT 5";

if (!$result = $mysqli->query($sql)) {

    echo "Sorry, the website is experiencing problems.";

    exit;

}

 

// Print our 5 random actors in a list, and link to each actor

echo "<ul>\n";

while ($actor = $result->fetch_assoc()) {

    echo "<li><a href='" . $_SERVER['SCRIPT_FILENAME'] . "?aid=" . $actor['id'] . "'>\n";

    echo $actor['name'] ;

    echo "</a></li>\n";

}

echo "</ul>\n";

// The script will automatically free the result and close the MySQL

// connection when it exits, but let's just do it anyways

$result->free();

$mysqli->close();

 

//The old style:

$mysqli = mysqli_connect($db_host, $db_user, $db_pwd, $db_name);

if(!$mysqli ){

    echo mysqli_connect_error();

    exit;

}

echo "Connect Database Success! \n";

mysqli_close($mysqli);

?>

参考:

https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000003841357

 

 

端口触发,即外网计算机WAN1想访问内网某台机器LAN1的各种服务(端口范围),需要内网LAN1服务器先访问外网WAN1机器的触发端口提供的服务。之后,外网的WAN1就可以访问内网LAN1上的服务了。


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