逛奔的蜗牛

我不聪明,但我会很努力

   ::  :: 新随笔 ::  ::  :: 管理 ::

STDARG(3)                               BSD Library Functions Manual                               STDARG(3)


NAME

     stdarg -- variable argument lists


SYNOPSIS

     #include <stdarg.h>


     void va_start(va_list ap, last);


     type va_arg(va_list ap, type);


     void va_copy(va_list dest, va_list src);


     void va_end(va_list ap);


DESCRIPTION

     A function may be called with a varying number of arguments of varying types.  The include file

     <stdarg.h> declares a type (va_list) and defines three macros for stepping through a list of arguments

     whose number and types are not known to the called function.


     The called function must declare an object of type va_list which is used by the macros va_start(),

     va_arg(), va_copy(), and va_end().


     The va_start() macro must be called first, and it initializes ap, which can be passed to va_arg() for

     each argument to be processed.  Calling va_end() signals that there are no further arguments, and

     causes ap to be invalidated.  Note that each call to va_start() must be matched by a call to va_end(),

     from within the same function.


     The parameter last is the name of the last parameter before the variable argument list, i.e., the last

     parameter of which the calling function knows the type.


     Because the address of this parameter is used in the va_start() macro, it should not be declared as a

     register variable, or as a function or an array type.


     The va_arg() macro expands to an expression that has the type and value of the next argument in the

     call.  The parameter ap is the va_list ap initialized by va_start().  Each call to va_arg() modifies ap

     so that the next call returns the next argument.  The parameter type is a type name specified so that

     the type of a pointer to an object that has the specified type can be obtained simply by adding a * to

     type.


     If there is no next argument, or if type is not compatible with the type of the actual next argument

     (as promoted according to the default argument promotions), random errors will occur.


     The first use of the va_arg() macro after that of the va_start() macro returns the argument after last.

     Successive invocations return the values of the remaining arguments.


     The va_copy() macro copies the state of the variable argument list, src, previously initialized by

     va_start(), to the variable argument list, dest, which must not have been previously initialized by

     va_start(), without an intervening call to va_end().  The state preserved in dest is equivalent to

     calling va_start() and va_arg() on dest in the same way as was used on src.  The copied variable argu-

     ment list can subsequently be passed to va_arg(), and must finally be passed to va_end() when through

     with it.


     After a variable argument list is invalidated by va_end(), it can be reinitialized with va_start() or

     made a copy of another variable argument list with va_copy().


EXAMPLES

     The function foo takes a string of format characters and prints out the argument associated with each

     format character based on the type.


           void foo(char *fmt, ...)

           {

                   va_list ap, ap2;

                   int d;

                   char c, *s;


                   va_start(ap, fmt);

                   va_copy(ap2, ap);

                   while (*fmt)

                           switch(*fmt++) {

                           case 's':                       /* string */

                                   s = va_arg(ap, char *);

                                   printf("string %s\n", s);

                                   break;

                           case 'd':                       /* int */

                                   d = va_arg(ap, int);

                                   printf("int %d\n", d);

                                   break;

                           case 'c':                       /* char */

                                   /* Note: char is promoted to int. */

                                   c = va_arg(ap, int);

                                   printf("char %c\n", c);

                                   break;

                           }

                   va_end(ap);

                   ...

                   /* use ap2 to iterate over the arguments again */

                   ...

                   va_end(ap2);

           }


COMPATIBILITY

     These macros are not compatible with the historic macros they replace.  A backward compatible version

     can be found in the include file <varargs.h>.


STANDARDS

     The va_start(), va_arg(), va_copy(), and va_end() macros conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99'').


BUGS

     Unlike the varargs macros, the stdarg macros do not permit programmers to code a function with no fixed

     arguments.  This problem generates work mainly when converting varargs code to stdarg code, but it also

     creates difficulties for variadic functions that wish to pass all of their arguments on to a function

     that takes a va_list argument, such as vfprintf(3).

@import url(http://www.cppblog.com/CuteSoft_Client/CuteEditor/Load.ashx?type=style&file=SyntaxHighlighter.css);@import url(/css/cuteeditor.css);
posted on 2011-12-02 00:00 逛奔的蜗牛 阅读(272) 评论(0)  编辑 收藏 引用 所属分类: Cocoa

只有注册用户登录后才能发表评论。
【推荐】超50万行VC++源码: 大型组态工控、电力仿真CAD与GIS源码库
网站导航: 博客园   IT新闻   BlogJava   知识库   博问   管理