快乐的天空

时间来得快,去得也快

 

redis 参数配置

1. Redis默认不是以守护进程的方式运行,可以通过该配置项修改,使用yes启用守护进程

    daemonize no

2. 当Redis以守护进程方式运行时,Redis默认会把pid写入/var/run/redis.pid文件,可以通过pidfile指定

    pidfile /var/run/redis.pid

3. 指定Redis监听端口,默认端口为6379,作者在自己的一篇博文中解释了为什么选用6379作为默认端口,因为6379在手机按键上MERZ对应的号码,而MERZ取自意大利歌女Alessia Merz的名字

    port 6379

4. 绑定的主机地址

    bind 127.0.0.1

5.当 客户端闲置多长时间后关闭连接,如果指定为0,表示关闭该功能

    timeout 300

6. 指定日志记录级别,Redis总共支持四个级别:debug、verbose、notice、warning,默认为verbose

    loglevel verbose

7. 日志记录方式,默认为标准输出,如果配置Redis为守护进程方式运行,而这里又配置为日志记录方式为标准输出,则日志将会发送给/dev/null

    logfile stdout

8. 设置数据库的数量,默认数据库为0,可以使用SELECT <dbid>命令在连接上指定数据库id

    databases 16

9. 指定在多长时间内,有多少次更新操作,就将数据同步到数据文件,可以多个条件配合

    save <seconds> <changes>

    Redis默认配置文件中提供了三个条件:

    save 900 1

    save 300 10

    save 60 10000

    分别表示900秒(15分钟)内有1个更改,300秒(5分钟)内有10个更改以及60秒内有10000个更改。

 

10. 指定存储至本地数据库时是否压缩数据,默认为yes,Redis采用LZF压缩,如果为了节省CPU时间,可以关闭该选项,但会导致数据库文件变的巨大

    rdbcompression yes

11. 指定本地数据库文件名,默认值为dump.rdb

    dbfilename dump.rdb

12. 指定本地数据库存放目录

    dir ./

13. 设置当本机为slav服务时,设置master服务的IP地址及端口,在Redis启动时,它会自动从master进行数据同步

    slaveof <masterip> <masterport>

14. 当master服务设置了密码保护时,slav服务连接master的密码

    masterauth <master-password>

15. 设置Redis连接密码,如果配置了连接密码,客户端在连接Redis时需要通过AUTH <password>命令提供密码,默认关闭

    requirepass foobared

16. 设置同一时间最大客户端连接数,默认无限制,Redis可以同时打开的客户端连接数为Redis进程可以打开的最大文件描述符数,如果设置 maxclients 0,表示不作限制。当客户端连接数到达限制时,Redis会关闭新的连接并向客户端返回max number of clients reached错误信息

    maxclients 128

17. 指定Redis最大内存限制,Redis在启动时会把数据加载到内存中,达到最大内存后,Redis会先尝试清除已到期或即将到期的Key,当此方法处理 后,仍然到达最大内存设置,将无法再进行写入操作,但仍然可以进行读取操作。Redis新的vm机制,会把Key存放内存,Value会存放在swap区

    maxmemory <bytes>

18. 指定是否在每次更新操作后进行日志记录,Redis在默认情况下是异步的把数据写入磁盘,如果不开启,可能会在断电时导致一段时间内的数据丢失。因为 redis本身同步数据文件是按上面save条件来同步的,所以有的数据会在一段时间内只存在于内存中。默认为no

    appendonly no

19. 指定更新日志文件名,默认为appendonly.aof

     appendfilename appendonly.aof

20. 指定更新日志条件,共有3个可选值:
    no:表示等操作系统进行数据缓存同步到磁盘(快)
    always:表示每次更新操作后手动调用fsync()将数据写到磁盘(慢,安全)
    everysec:表示每秒同步一次(折衷,默认值)

    appendfsync everysec

 

21. 指定是否启用虚拟内存机制,默认值为no,简单的介绍一下,VM机制将数据分页存放,由Redis将访问量较少的页即冷数据swap到磁盘上,访问多的页面由磁盘自动换出到内存中(在后面的文章我会仔细分析Redis的VM机制)

     vm-enabled no

22. 虚拟内存文件路径,默认值为/tmp/redis.swap,不可多个Redis实例共享

     vm-swap-file /tmp/redis.swap

23. 将所有大于vm-max-memory的数据存入虚拟内存,无论vm-max-memory设置多小,所有索引数据都是内存存储的(Redis的索引数据 就是keys),也就是说,当vm-max-memory设置为0的时候,其实是所有value都存在于磁盘。默认值为0

     vm-max-memory 0

24. Redis swap文件分成了很多的page,一个对象可以保存在多个page上面,但一个page上不能被多个对象共享,vm-page-size是要根据存储的 数据大小来设定的,作者建议如果存储很多小对象,page大小最好设置为32或者64bytes;如果存储很大大对象,则可以使用更大的page,如果不 确定,就使用默认值

     vm-page-size 32

25. 设置swap文件中的page数量,由于页表(一种表示页面空闲或使用的bitmap)是在放在内存中的,,在磁盘上每8个pages将消耗1byte的内存。

     vm-pages 134217728

26. 设置访问swap文件的线程数,最好不要超过机器的核数,如果设置为0,那么所有对swap文件的操作都是串行的,可能会造成比较长时间的延迟。默认值为4

     vm-max-threads 4

27. 设置在向客户端应答时,是否把较小的包合并为一个包发送,默认为开启

    glueoutputbuf yes

28. 指定在超过一定的数量或者最大的元素超过某一临界值时,采用一种特殊的哈希算法

    hash-max-zipmap-entries 64

    hash-max-zipmap-value 512

29. 指定是否激活重置哈希,默认为开启(后面在介绍Redis的哈希算法时具体介绍)

    activerehashing yes

30. 指定包含其它的配置文件,可以在同一主机上多个Redis实例之间使用同一份配置文件,而同时各个实例又拥有自己的特定配置文件

    include /path/to/local.conf



# By default Redis does not run as a daemon. Use 'yes' if you need it.
# Note that Redis will write a pid file in /var/run/redis.pid when daemonized.
#Redis默认不是以守护进程的方式运行,可以通过该配置项修改,使用yes启用守护进程
daemonize no
# When running daemonized, Redis writes a pid file in /var/run/redis.pid by
# default. You can specify a custom pid file location here.
#当 Redis 以守护进程的方式运行的时候,Redis 默认会把 pid 文件放在/var/run/redis.pid
#可配置到其他地址,当运行多个 redis 服务时,需要指定不同的 pid 文件和端口
pidfile /var/run/redis.pid
# Accept connections on the specified port, default is 6379.
# If port 0 is specified Redis will not listen on a TCP socket.
#端口
port 6379
# If you want you can bind a single interface, if the bind option is not
# specified all the interfaces will listen for incoming connections.
#指定Redis可接收请求的IP地址,不设置将处理所有请求,建议生产环境中设置
# bind 127.0.0.1
# Close the connection after a client is idle for N seconds (0 to disable)
#客户端连接的超时时间,单位为秒,超时后会关闭连接
timeout 0
# Set server verbosity to 'debug'
# it can be one of:
# debug (a lot of information, useful for development/testing)
# verbose (many rarely useful info, but not a mess like the debug level)
# notice (moderately verbose, what you want in production probably)
# warning (only very important / critical messages are logged)
#日志记录等级,4个可选值
loglevel notice
# Specify the log file name. Also 'stdout' can be used to force
# Redis to log on the standard output. Note that if you use standard
# output for logging but daemonize, logs will be sent to /dev/null
#配置 log 文件地址,默认打印在命令行终端的窗口上,也可设为/dev/null屏蔽日志、
logfile stdout
# Set the number of databases. The default database is DB 0, you can select
# a different one on a per-connection basis using SELECT where
# dbid is a number between 0 and 'databases'-1
#设置数据库的个数,可以使用 SELECT 命令来切换数据库。
databases 16
#
# Save the DB on disk:
#
#   save
#
#   Will save the DB if both the given number of seconds and the given
#   number of write operations against the DB occurred.
#
#   In the example below the behaviour will be to save:
#   after 900 sec (15 min) if at least 1 key changed
#   after 300 sec (5 min) if at least 10 keys changed
#   after 60 sec if at least 10000 keys changed
#
#   Note: you can disable saving at all commenting all the "save" lines.
#设置 Redis 进行数据库镜像的频率。保存数据到disk的策略
#900秒之内有1个keys发生变化时
#30秒之内有10个keys发生变化时
#60秒之内有10000个keys发生变化时
save 900 1
save 300 10
save 60 10000
# Compress string objects using LZF when dump .rdb databases?
# For default that's set to 'yes' as it's almost always a win.
# If you want to save some CPU in the saving child set it to 'no' but
# the dataset will likely be bigger if you have compressible values or keys.
#在进行镜像备份时,是否进行压缩
rdbcompression yes
# The filename where to dump the DB
#镜像备份文件的文件名
dbfilename dump.rdb
# The working directory.
#
# The DB will be written inside this directory, with the filename specified
# above using the 'dbfilename' configuration directive.
# Also the Append Only File will be created inside this directory.
# Note that you must specify a directory here, not a file name.
#数据库镜像备份的文件放置的路径
#路径跟文件名分开配置是因为 Redis 备份时,先会将当前数据库的状态写入到一个临时文件
#等备份完成时,再把该临时文件替换为上面所指定的文件
#而临时文件和上面所配置的备份文件都会放在这个指定的路径当中
#默认值为 ./
dir /var/lib/redis/
# Master-Slave replication. Use slaveof to make a Redis instance a copy of
# another Redis server. Note that the configuration is local to the slave
# so for example it is possible to configure the slave to save the DB with a
# different interval, or to listen to another port, and so on.
#设置该数据库为其他数据库的从数据库
#slaveof <masterip> <masterport> 当本机为从服务时,设置主服务的IP及端口
# slaveof
# If the master is password protected (using the "requirepass" configuration
# directive below) it is possible to tell the slave to authenticate before
# starting the replication synchronization process, otherwise the master will
# refuse the slave request.
#指定与主数据库连接时需要的密码验证
#masterauth <master-password> 当本机为从服务时,设置主服务的连接密码
# masterauth
# When a slave lost the connection with the master, or when the replication
# is still in progress, the slave can act in two different ways:
#
# 1) if slave-serve-stale-data is set to 'yes' (the default) the slave will
#    still reply to client requests, possibly with out of data data, or the
#    data set may just be empty if this is the first synchronization.
#
# 2) if slave-serve-stale data is set to 'no' the slave will reply with
#    an error "SYNC with master in progress" to all the kind of commands
#    but to INFO and SLAVEOF.
#当slave丢失与master的连接时,或slave仍然在于master进行数据同步时(未与master保持一致)
#slave可有两种方式来响应客户端请求:
#1)如果 slave-serve-stale-data 设置成 'yes'(默认),slave仍响应客户端请求,此时可能会有问题
#2)如果 slave-serve-stale-data 设置成 'no',slave会返回"SYNC with master in progress"错误信息,但 INFO 和SLAVEOF命令除外。
slave-serve-stale-data yes
# Require clients to issue AUTH before processing any other
# commands.  This might be useful in environments in which you do not trust
# others with access to the host running redis-server.
#
# This should stay commented out for backward compatibility and because most
# people do not need auth (e.g. they run their own servers).
# Warning: since Redis is pretty fast an outside user can try up to
# 150k passwords per second against a good box. This means that you should
# use a very strong password otherwise it will be very easy to break.
#设置客户端连接后进行任何其他指定前需要使用的密码
#redis速度相当快,一个外部用户在一秒钟进行150K次密码尝试,需指定强大的密码来防止暴力破解
# requirepass foobared
# Set the max number of connected clients at the same time. By default there
# is no limit, and it's up to the number of file descriptors the Redis process
# is able to open. The special value '0' means no limits.
# Once the limit is reached Redis will close all the new connections sending
# an error 'max number of clients reached'.
#限制同时连接的客户数量。
#当连接数超过这个值时,redis 将不再接收其他连接请求,客户端尝试连接时将收到 error 信息
# maxclients 128
# Don't use more memory than the specified amount of bytes.
# When the memory limit is reached Redis will try to remove keys
# accordingly to the eviction policy selected (see maxmemmory-policy).
#
# If Redis can't remove keys according to the policy, or if the policy is
# set to 'noeviction', Redis will start to reply with errors to commands
# that would use more memory, like SET, LPUSH, and so on, and will continue
# to reply to read-only commands like GET.
#
# This option is usually useful when using Redis as an LRU cache, or to set
# an hard memory limit for an instance (using the 'noeviction' policy).
#
# WARNING: If you have slaves attached to an instance with maxmemory on,
# the size of the output buffers needed to feed the slaves are subtracted
# from the used memory count, so that network problems / resyncs will
# not trigger a loop where keys are evicted, and in turn the output
# buffer of slaves is full with DELs of keys evicted triggering the deletion
# of more keys, and so forth until the database is completely emptied.
#
# In short... if you have slaves attached it is suggested that you set a lower
# limit for maxmemory so that there is some free RAM on the system for slave
# output buffers (but this is not needed if the policy is 'noeviction').
#设置redis能够使用的最大内存。
#达到最大内存设置后,Redis会先尝试清除已到期或即将到期的Key(设置过expire信息的key
#在删除时,按照过期时间进行删除,最早将要被过期的key将最先被删除
#如果已到期或即将到期的key删光,仍进行set操作,那么将返回错误
#此时redis将不再接收写请求,只接收get请求。
#maxmemory的设置比较适合于把redis当作于类似memcached 的缓存来使用
# maxmemory <bytes>
# By default Redis asynchronously dumps the dataset on disk. If you can live
# with the idea that the latest records will be lost if something like a crash
# happens this is the preferred way to run Redis. If instead you care a lot
# about your data and don't want to that a single record can get lost you should
# enable the append only mode: when this mode is enabled Redis will append
# every write operation received in the file appendonly.aof. This file will
# be read on startup in order to rebuild the full dataset in memory.
#
# Note that you can have both the async dumps and the append only file if you
# like (you have to comment the "save" statements above to disable the dumps).
# Still if append only mode is enabled Redis will load the data from the
# log file at startup ignoring the dump.rdb file.
#
# IMPORTANT: Check the BGREWRITEAOF to check how to rewrite the append
# log file in background when it gets too big.
#redis 默认每次更新操作后会在后台异步的把数据库镜像备份到磁盘,但该备份非常耗时,且备份不宜太频繁
#redis 同步数据文件是按上面save条件来同步的
#如果发生诸如拉闸限电、拔插头等状况,那么将造成比较大范围的数据丢失
#所以redis提供了另外一种更加高效的数据库备份及灾难恢复方式
#开启append only 模式后,redis 将每一次写操作请求都追加到appendonly.aof 文件中
#redis重新启动时,会从该文件恢复出之前的状态。
#但可能会造成 appendonly.aof 文件过大,所以redis支持BGREWRITEAOF 指令,对appendonly.aof重新整理
appendonly no
# The name of the append only file (default: "appendonly.aof")
##更新日志文件名,默认值为appendonly.aof
# appendfilename appendonly.aof
# The fsync() call tells the Operating System to actually write data on disk
# instead to wait for more data in the output buffer. Some OS will really flush 
# data on disk, some other OS will just try to do it ASAP.
#
# Redis supports three different modes:
#
# no: don't fsync, just let the OS flush the data when it wants. Faster.
# always: fsync after every write to the append only log . Slow, Safest.
# everysec: fsync only if one second passed since the last fsync. Compromise.
#
# The default is "everysec" that's usually the right compromise between
# speed and data safety. It's up to you to understand if you can relax this to
# "no" that will will let the operating system flush the output buffer when
# it wants, for better performances (but if you can live with the idea of
# some data loss consider the default persistence mode that's snapshotting),
# or on the contrary, use "always" that's very slow but a bit safer than
# everysec.
#
# If unsure, use "everysec".
#设置对 appendonly.aof 文件进行同步的频率
#always 表示每次有写操作都进行同步,everysec 表示对写操作进行累积,每秒同步一次。
#no表示等操作系统进行数据缓存同步到磁盘,都进行同步,everysec 表示对写操作进行累积,每秒同步一次
# appendfsync always
appendfsync everysec
# appendfsync no
# Virtual Memory allows Redis to work with datasets bigger than the actual
# amount of RAM needed to hold the whole dataset in memory.
# In order to do so very used keys are taken in memory while the other keys
# are swapped into a swap file, similarly to what operating systems do
# with memory pages.
#
# To enable VM just set 'vm-enabled' to yes, and set the following three
# VM parameters accordingly to your needs.
#是否开启虚拟内存支持。
#redis 是一个内存数据库,当内存满时,无法接收新的写请求,所以在redis2.0后,提供了虚拟内存的支持
#但需要注意的,redis 所有的key都会放在内存中,在内存不够时,只把value 值放入交换区
#虽使用虚拟内存,但性能基本不受影响,需要注意的是要把vm-max-memory设置到足够来放下所有的key
vm-enabled no
# vm-enabled yes
# This is the path of the Redis swap file. As you can guess, swap files
# can't be shared by different Redis instances, so make sure to use a swap
# file for every redis process you are running. Redis will complain if the
# swap file is already in use.
#
# The best kind of storage for the Redis swap file (that's accessed at random) 
# is a Solid State Disk (SSD).
#
# *** WARNING *** if you are using a shared hosting the default of putting
# the swap file under /tmp is not secure. Create a dir with access granted
# only to Redis user and configure Redis to create the swap file there.
#设置虚拟内存的交换文件路径,不可多个Redis实例共享
vm-swap-file /tmp/redis.swap
# vm-max-memory configures the VM to use at max the specified amount of
# RAM. Everything that deos not fit will be swapped on disk *if* possible, that
# is, if there is still enough contiguous space in the swap file.
#
# With vm-max-memory 0 the system will swap everything it can. Not a good
# default, just specify the max amount of RAM you can in bytes, but it's
# better to leave some margin. For instance specify an amount of RAM
# that's more or less between 60 and 80% of your free RAM.
#设置开启虚拟内存后,redis将使用的最大物理内存大小。
#默认为0,redis将把他所有能放到交换文件的都放到交换文件中,以尽量少的使用物理内存
#即当vm-max-memory设置为0的时候,其实是所有value都存在于磁盘
#在生产环境下,需要根据实际情况设置该值,最好不要使用默认的 0
vm-max-memory 0
# Redis swap files is split into pages. An object can be saved using multiple
# contiguous pages, but pages can't be shared between different objects.
# So if your page is too big, small objects swapped out on disk will waste
# a lot of space. If you page is too small, there is less space in the swap
# file (assuming you configured the same number of total swap file pages).
#
# If you use a lot of small objects, use a page size of 64 or 32 bytes.
# If you use a lot of big objects, use a bigger page size.
# If unsure, use the default :)
#设置虚拟内存的页大小
如果 value 值比较大,如要在 value 中放置博客、新闻之类的所有文章内容,就设大一点
vm-page-size 32
# Number of total memory pages in the swap file.
# Given that the page table (a bitmap of free/used pages) is taken in memory,
# every 8 pages on disk will consume 1 byte of RAM.
#
# The total swap size is vm-page-size * vm-pages
#
# With the default of 32-bytes memory pages and 134217728 pages Redis will
# use a 4 GB swap file, that will use 16 MB of RAM for the page table.
#
# It's better to use the smallest acceptable value for your application,
# but the default is large in order to work in most conditions.
#设置交换文件的总的 page 数量
#注意page table信息是放在物理内存中,每8个page 就会占据RAM中的 1 个 byte
#总的虚拟内存大小 = vm-page-size * vm-pages
vm-pages 134217728
# Max number of VM I/O threads running at the same time.
# This threads are used to read/write data from/to swap file, since they
# also encode and decode objects from disk to memory or the reverse, a bigger
# number of threads can help with big objects even if they can't help with
# I/O itself as the physical device may not be able to couple with many
# reads/writes operations at the same time.
#
# The special value of 0 turn off threaded I/O and enables the blocking
# Virtual Memory implementation.
#设置 VM IO 同时使用的线程数量。
vm-max-threads 4
# Hashes are encoded in a special way (much more memory efficient) when they
# have at max a given numer of elements, and the biggest element does not
# exceed a given threshold. You can configure this limits with the following
# configuration directives.
#redis 2.0后引入了 hash 数据结构。 
#hash 中包含超过指定元素个数并且最大的元素当没有超过临界时,hash 将以zipmap来存储
#zipmap又称为 small hash,可大大减少内存的使用
hash-max-zipmap-entries 512
hash-max-zipmap-value 64
# Active rehashing uses 1 millisecond every 100 milliseconds of CPU time in
# order to help rehashing the main Redis hash table (the one mapping top-level
# keys to values). The hash table implementation redis uses (see dict.c)
# performs a lazy rehashing: the more operation you run into an hash table
# that is rhashing, the more rehashing "steps" are performed, so if the
# server is idle the rehashing is never complete and some more memory is used
# by the hash table.
# The default is to use this millisecond 10 times every second in order to
# active rehashing the main dictionaries, freeing memory when possible.
#
# If unsure:
# use "activerehashing no" if you have hard latency requirements and it is
# not a good thing in your environment that Redis can reply form time to time
# to queries with 2 milliseconds delay.
#
# use "activerehashing yes" if you don't have such hard requirements but
# want to free memory asap when possible.
#是否重置Hash表
#设置成yes后redis将每100毫秒使用1毫秒CPU时间来对redis的hash表重新hash,可降低内存的使用
#当使用场景有较为严格的实时性需求,不能接受Redis时不时的对请求有2毫秒的延迟的话,把这项配置为no。
#如果没有这么严格的实时性要求,可以设置为 yes,以便能够尽可能快的释放内存
activerehashing yes

Redis官方文档对VM的使用提出了一些建议:
  • 当key很小而value很大时,使用VM的效果会比较好.因为这样节约的内存比较大
  • 当key不小时,可以考虑使用一些非常方法将很大的key变成很大的value,如可将key,value组合成一个新的value
  • 最好使用linux ext3 等对稀疏文件支持比较好的文件系统保存你的swap文件
  • vm-max-threads参数可设置访问swap文件的线程数,最好不要超过机器的核数;设置为0则所有对swap文件的操作都是串行的,可能会造成比较长时间的延迟,但是对数据完整性有很好的保证
redis数据存储
redis的存储分为内存存储、磁盘存储和log文件三部分,配置文件中有三个参数对其进行配置。
  • save seconds updates,save配置,指出在多长时间内,有多少次更新操作,就将数据同步到数据文件。可多个条件配合,默认配置了三个条件。
  • appendonly yes/no ,appendonly配置,指出是否在每次更新操作后进行日志记录,如果不开启,可能会在断电时导致一段时间内的数据丢失。因为redis本身同步数据文件是按上面的save条件来同步的,所以有的数据会在一段时间内只存在于内存中。
  • appendfsync no/always/everysec ,appendfsync配置,no表示等操作系统进行数据缓存同步到磁盘,always表示每次更新操作后手动调用fsync()将数据写到磁盘,everysec表示每秒同步一次。

 

posted on 2014-06-18 12:57 探路者 阅读(4032) 评论(0)  编辑 收藏 引用 所属分类: 开发笔记


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