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posted @ 2012-09-18 19:19 polly 阅读(411) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

Ubuntu 12.04中缺省安装了Python2.7.3，首先通过下面的命令安装pip，pip是Python的一个安装和管理扩展库的工具。

sudo apt-get install python-pip

sudo apt-get install python-dev

# IPython

cdsudo apt-get install gitgit clone https://github.com/ipython/ipython.gitcd ipythonsudo python setup.py install

sudo apt-get install ipython

sudo pip install tornadosudo apt-get install libzmq-devsudo pip install pyzmqsudo pip install pygments

cdmkdir notebookcd notebookipython notebook

sudo ipython notebook

from IPython.external.mathjax import install_mathjaxinstall_mathjax()

# NumPy，SciPy和matplotlib

sudo apt-get install python-numpysudo apt-get install python-scipysudo apt-get install python-matplotlib

sudo apt-get build-dep python-numpysudo apt-get build-dep python-scipy

sudo pip install numpysudo pip install scipy

# PyQt4和Spyder

sudo apt-get install python-qt4sudo apt-get install qt4-designersudo apt-get install pyqt4-dev-toolssudo apt-get install python-qt4-doc

/usr/share/doc/python-qt4-doc

sudo apt-get install spyder

sudo pip install spyder --upgrade

# cython和SWIG

Cython和SWIG是编写Python扩展模块的工具：

sudo pip install cythonsudo apt-get install swig

# ETS

ETS是enthought公司开发的一套科学计算软件包，其中的Mayavi通过VTK实现数据的三维可视化。

sudo apt-get install python-dev libxtst-dev scons python-vtk  pyqt4-dev-tools python2.7-wxgtk2.8 python-configobjsudo apt-get install libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev

mkdir etscd etswget https://github.com/enthought/ets/raw/master/ets.pypython ets.py clonesudo python ets.py develop#sudo python ets.py install    或者运行install安装

# OpenCV

sudo apt-get install build-essentialsudo apt-get install cmakesudo apt-get install cmake-guisudo apt-get install libavcodec-dev libavformat-dev libswscale-devsudo apt-get install libjpeg-dev libpng-dev libtiff-dev libjasper-dev

mkdir releasecmake-gui

cd releasemakesudo make install

posted @ 2012-09-18 13:02 polly 阅读(885) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

posted @ 2012-09-17 14:20 polly 阅读(252) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

这里罗列了已经发现的所有美国现役和退役的航空母舰。其中包括：

“小鹰”号 CV63　 35°17'29.66"N,139°39'43.67"E

“肯尼迪”号 CVN67　 30°23'50.91"N, 81°24'14.86"W

“尼米兹”号 CVN68　 32°42'47.88"N,117°11'22.49"W

“艾森豪威尔”号 CVN69　 36°57'27.13"N, 76°19'46.35"W

“林肯” 号 CVN72 　 47°58'53.54"N,122°13'42.94"W

“华盛顿”号 CVN73　 36°57'32.90"N, 76°19'45.10"W

“杜鲁门”号 CVN75　　36°48'53.25"N,76°17'49.29"W

“无畏”号 CV-11　　 40°45'53.88"N,74° 0'4.22"W

“莱克星顿”号 CV-2　　27°48'54.13"N,97°23'19.65"W

“星座”号 47°33'11.30"N,122°39'17.24"W

“独立”号 47°33'7.53"N,122°39'30.13"W

“游骑兵”号 47°33'10.63"N,122°39'9.53"W

“佛瑞斯特”号和“萨拉托加”号　41°31'39.59"N,71°18'58.70"W

“美利坚”号　39°53'6.36"N,75°10'45.55"W

posted @ 2012-08-19 10:34 polly 阅读(297) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

CV-1 Langley 兰利号 以运煤舰朱比特号（USS Jupiter）改造而成
CV-2 Lexington 列克星敦号 列克星敦级 1942年5月8日珊瑚海海战受到重创沉没
CV-3 Saratoga 萨拉托加号 列克星敦级 1946年7月25日比基尼环礁的核子武器试验中沉没
CV-4 Ranger 突击者号 突击者级 1946年10月18日退役
CV-5 Yorktown 约克城号 约克城级 1942年6月7日中途岛海战中沉没
CV-6 Enterprise 企业号 约克城级 1947年2月17日退役
CV-7 Wasp 胡蜂号 胡蜂级 1942年9月15日日军潜艇击沉
CV-8 Hornet 大黄蜂号 约克城级 1942年10月27日圣克鲁斯群岛战役中受重创沉没
CV-9 Essex 埃塞克斯号 埃塞克斯级 1969年6月30日退役
CV-10 Yorktown 约克城号 埃塞克斯级 1970年6月27日退役
CV-11 Intrepid 无畏号 埃塞克斯级 1974年3月15日退役
CV-12 Hornet 大黄蜂号 埃塞克斯级 1970年6月24日退役
CV-13 Franklin 富兰克林号 埃塞克斯级 1947年2月17日退役
CV-14 Ticonderoga 提康德罗加号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-15 Randolph 伦道夫号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-16 Lexington 列克星敦号 埃塞克斯级 1991年11月8日退役
CV-17 Bunker Hill 邦克山号 埃塞克斯级 1947年1月9日退役
CV-18 Wasp 胡蜂号 埃塞克斯级 1972年7月1日退役
CV-19 Hancock 汉考克号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-20 Bennington 本宁顿号 埃塞克斯级 1970年1月15日退役
CV-21 Boxer 拳师号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CVL-22 Independence 独立号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-23 Princeton 普林斯顿号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-24 Belleau Wood 贝劳森林号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-25 Cowpens 科本斯号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-26 Monterey 蒙特利号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-27 Langley 兰利号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-28 Cabot 卡伯特号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-29 Bataan 巴丹号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CVL-30 San Jacinto 圣哈辛托号 独立级 自“克里夫兰级轻巡洋舰”改装而成
CV-31 Bon Homme Richard 好人理查德号 埃塞克斯级 1971年7月2日退役
CV-32 Leyte 莱特号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-33 Kearsarge 奇沙治号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-34 Oriskany 奥里斯卡尼号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-35 Reprisal 复仇号 埃塞克斯级 建造中途取消
CV-36 Antietam 安提坦号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-37 Princeton 普林斯顿号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-38 Shangri-la 香格里拉号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-39 Lake Champlain 尚普兰湖号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-40 Tarawa 塔拉瓦号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CVB-41 Midway 中途岛号 中途岛级 1992年4月11日退役
CVB-42 Franklin D. Roosevelt 罗斯福号 中途岛级
CVB-43 Coral Sea 珊瑚海号 中途岛级
CVB-44 建造计划取消
CV-45 Valley Forge 福吉谷号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CV-46 Iwo Jima 硫磺岛号 埃塞克斯级 建造计划取消
CV-47 Philippine Sea 菲律宾海号 埃塞克斯级 长舰体埃塞克斯级（Long-hull Essex）
CVL-48 Saipan 塞班岛号 塞班岛级 1970年1月14日 正式除役
CVL-49 Wright 莱特号 塞班岛级 1970年5月27日 正式除役
CV-50到CV-55 埃塞克斯级 建造计划取消
CVB-56到CVB-57 中途岛级 建造中途取消
CVA-58 United States 美国号 美国级 建造中途取消
CVA-59 Forrestal 福莱斯特号 福莱斯特级 1993年9月11日 正式除役
CVA-60 Saratoga 萨拉托加号 福莱斯特级 1994年8月20日 正式除役
CVA-61 Ranger 突击者号 福莱斯特级 1993年7月10日 正式除役
CV-62 Independence 独立号 福莱斯特级 1998年9月30日 正式除役
CV-63 Kitty Hawk 小鹰号 小鹰级 2009年5月12日 正式除役
CV-64 Constellation 星座号 小鹰级 2003年8月6日 正式除役
CVN-65 Enterprise 企业号 企业级 服役中
CVA-66 America 美利坚号 小鹰级 1996年8月9日 正式除役
CV-67 John F. Kennedy 肯尼迪号 （改良）小鹰级 2007年8月1日 正式除役
CVN-68 Nimitz 尼米兹号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-69 Dwight D. Eisenhower 艾森豪威尔号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-70 Carl Vinson 卡尔文森号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-71 Theodore Roosevelt 罗斯福号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-72 Abraham Lincoln 林肯号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-73 George Washington 华盛顿号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-74 John C. Stennis 斯坦尼斯号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-75 Harry S. Truman 杜鲁门号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-76 Ronald Reagan 里根号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-77 George H. W. Bush 布什号 尼米兹级 服役中
CVN-78 Gerald R. Ford 福特号 福特级 建造中
CVN-79 John F. Kennedy 肯尼迪号 福特级 建造中
CVN-80 未命名 福特级 计划中

posted @ 2012-08-19 10:33 polly 阅读(270) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

(1)  多光谱成像——光谱分辨率在 delta_lambda/lambda=0．1数量级，这样的传感器在可见光和近红外区域一般只有几个波段。

(2)  高光谱成像—— 光谱分辨率在 delta_lambda/lambda=0．01数量级，这样的传感器在可见光和近红外区域有几卜到数百个波段，光谱分辨率可达nm级。

(3)  超光谱成像—— 光谱分辨率在delta_lambda/lambda =O．001数量级，这样的传感器在可见光和近红外区域可达数千个波段。

posted @ 2012-08-10 10:42 polly 阅读(434) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

A:应将解决方案平台改为win64。

Q：Error C1189 Building MFC application with /MD[d] (CRT dll version) requires MFC shared dll version. Please #define _AFXDLL or do not use /MD[d]
A:Go to the project properties (Project menu, Properties).  Set 'Use of MFC' to "Use MFC in a Shared DLL".  You have to make this change for both the debug and release configurations

posted @ 2012-07-30 11:57 polly 阅读(468) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

posted @ 2012-07-25 19:02 polly 阅读(226) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

### Introduction

Filtering is perhaps the most fundamental operation of image processing and computer vision. In the broadest sense of the term "filtering", the value of the filtered image at a given location is a function of the values of the input image in a small neighborhood of the same location. For example, Gaussian low-pass filtering computes a weighted average of pixel values in the neighborhood, in which the weights decrease with distance from the neighborhood center. Although formal and quantitative explanations of this weight fall-off can be given, the intuition is that images typically vary slowly over space, so near pixels are likely to have similar values, and it is therefore appropriate to average them together. The noise values that corrupt these nearby pixels are mutually less correlated than the signal values, so noise is averaged away while signal is preserved.
The assumption of slow spatial variations fails at edges, which are consequently blurred by linear low-pass filtering. How can we prevent averaging across edges, while still averaging within smooth regions?
Many efforts have been devoted to reducing this undesired effect. Bilateral filtering is a simple, non-iterative scheme for edge-preserving smoothing.

Back to Index

### The Idea

The basic idea underlying bilateral filtering is to do in the range of an image what traditional filters do in its domain. Two pixels can be close to one another, that is, occupy nearby spatial location, or they can be similar to one another, that is, have nearby values, possibly in a perceptually meaningful fashion.
Consider a shift-invariant low-pass domain filter applied to an image:

The bold font for
f and h emphasizes the fact that both input and output images may be multi-band. In order to preserve the DC component, it must be

Range filtering is similarly defined:

In this case, the kernel measures the
photometric similarity between pixels. The normalization constant in this case is

The spatial distribution of image intensities plays no role in range filtering taken by itself. Combining intensities from the entire image, however, makes little sense, since the distribution of image values far away from
x ought not to affect the final value at x. In addition, one can show that range filtering without domain filtering merely changes the color map of an image, and is therefore of little use. The appropriate solution is to combine domain and range filtering, thereby enforcing both geometric and photometric locality. Combined filtering can be described as follows:

with the normalization

Combined domain and range filtering will be denoted as
bilateral filtering. It replaces the pixel value at x with an average of similar and nearby pixel values. In smooth regions, pixel values in a small neighborhood are similar to each other, and the bilateral filter acts essentially as a standard domain filter, averaging away the small, weakly correlated differences between pixel values caused by noise. Consider now a sharp boundary between a dark and a bright region, as in figure 1(a).
 (a) (b) (c) Figure 1

When the bilateral filter is centered, say, on a pixel on the bright side of the boundary, the similarity function
s assumes values close to one for pixels on the same side, and values close to zero for pixels on the dark side. The similarity function is shown in figure 1(b) for a 23x23 filter support centered two pixels to the right of the step in figure 1(a). The normalization term k(x) ensures that the weights for all the pixels add up to one. As a result, the filter replaces the bright pixel at the center by an average of the bright pixels in its vicinity, and essentially ignores the dark pixels. Conversely, when the filter is centered on a dark pixel, the bright pixels are ignored instead. Thus, as shown in figure 1(c), good filtering behavior is achieved at the boundaries, thanks to the domain component of the filter, and crisp edges are preserved at the same time, thanks to the range component.

Back to Index

### The Gaussian Case

A simple and important case of bilateral filtering is shift-invariant Gaussian filtering, in which both the closeness function c and the similarity function s are Gaussian functions of the Euclidean distance between their arguments. More specifically, c is radially symmetric:

where

is the Euclidean distance. The similarity function
s is perfectly analogous to c :

where

is a suitable measure of distance in intensity space. In the scalar case, this may be simply the absolute difference of the pixel difference or, since noise increases with image intensity, an intensity-dependent version of it. Just as this form of domain filtering is shift-invariant, the Gaussian range filter introduced above is insensitive to overall additive changes of image intensity. Of course, the range filter is shift-invariant as well.

Back to Index

### Experiments with Black-and-White Images

Figure 2 (a) and (b) show the potential of bilateral filtering for the removal of texture. The picture "simplification" illustrated by figure 2 (b) can be useful for data reduction without loss of overall shape features in applications such as image transmission, picture editing and manipulation, image description for retrieval.

 (a) (b) Figure 2

Bilateral filtering with parameters sd =3 pixels and sr =50 intensity values is applied to the image in figure 3 (a) to yield the image in figure 3 (b). Notice that most of the fine texture has been filtered away, and yet all contours are as crisp as in the original image. Figure 3 (c) shows a detail of figure 3 (a), and figure 3 (d) shows the corresponding filtered version. The two onions have assumed a graphics-like appearance, and the fine texture has gone. However, the overall shading is preserved, because it is well within the band of the domain filter and is almost unaffected by the range filter. Also, the boundaries of the onions are preserved.
 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3

Back to Index

### Experiments with Color Images

For black-and-white images, intensities between any two gray levels are still gray levels. As a consequence, when smoothing black-and-white images with a standard low-pass filter, intermediate levels of gray are produced across edges, thereby producing blurred images. With color images, an additional complication arises from the fact that between any two colors there are other, often rather different colors. For instance, between blue and red there are various shades of pink and purple. Thus, disturbing color bands may be produced when smoothing across color edges. The smoothed image does not just look blurred, it also exhibits odd-looking, colored auras around objects.
 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 4

Figure 4 (a) shows a detail from a picture with a red jacket against a blue sky. Even in this unblurred picture, a thin pink-purple line is visible, and is caused by a combination of lens blurring and pixel averaging. In fact, pixels along the boundary, when projected back into the scene, intersect both red jacket and blue sky, and the resulting color is the pink average of red and blue. When smoothing, this effect is emphasized, as the broad, blurred pink-purple area in figure 4 (b) shows.
To address this difficulty, edge-preserving smoothing could be applied to the red, green, and blue components of the image separately. However, the intensity profiles across the edge in the three color bands are in general different. Smoothing the three color bands separately results in an even more pronounced pink and purple band than in the original, as shown in figure 4 (c). The pink-purple band, however, is not widened as in the standard-blurred version of figure 4 (b).
A much better result can be obtained with bilateral filtering. In fact, a bilateral filter allows combining the three color bands appropriately, and measuring photometric distances between pixels in the combined space. Moreover, this combined distance can be made to correspond closely to perceived dissimilarity by using Euclidean distance in the
CIE-Lab color space. This color space is based on a large body of psychophysical data concerning color-matching experiments performed by human observers. In this space, small Euclidean distances are designed to correlate strongly with the perception of color discrepancy as experienced by an "average" color-normal human observer. Thus, in a sense, bilateral filtering performed in the CIE-Lab color space is the most natural type of filtering for color images: only perceptually similar colors are averaged together, and only perceptually important edges are preserved. Figure 4 (d) shows the image resulting from bilateral smoothing of the image in figure 4 (a). The pink band has shrunk considerably, and no extraneous colors appear.
 (a) (b) (c) Figure 5

Figure 5 (c) shows the result of five iterations of bilateral filtering of the image in figure 5 (a). While a single iteration produces a much cleaner image (figure 5 (b)) than the original, and is probably sufficient for most image processing needs, multiple iterations have the effect of flattening the colors in an image considerably, but without blurring edges. The resulting image has a much smaller color map, and the effects of bilateral filtering are easier to see when displayed on a printed page. Notice the cartoon-like appearance of figure 5 (c). All shadows and edges are preserved, but most of the shading is gone, and no "new" colors are introduced by filtering.

Back to Index

### References

[1] C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, "Bilateral Filtering for Gray and Color Images", Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, Bombay, India.
[2] T. Boult, R.A. Melter, F. Skorina, and I. Stojmenovic,"G-neighbors",
Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Vision Geometry II, pages 96-109, 1993.
[3] R.T. Chin and C.L. Yeh, "Quantitative evaluation of some edge-preserving noise-smoothing techniques",
Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 23:67-91, 1983.
[4] L.S. Davis and A. Rosenfeld, "Noise cleaning by iterated local averaging",
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 8:705-710, 1978.
[5] R.E. Graham, "Snow-removal - a noise-stripping process for picture signals",
IRE Transactions on Information Theory, 8:129-144, 1961.
[6] N. Himayat and S.A. Kassam, "Approximate performance analysis of edge preserving filters",
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 41(9):2764-77, 1993.
[7] T.S. Huang, G.J. Yang, and G.Y. Tang, "A fast two-dimensional median filtering algorithm",
IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 27(1):13-18, 1979.
[8] J.S. Lee, "Digital image enhancement and noise filtering by use of local statistics",
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2(2):165-168, 1980.
[9] M. Nagao and T. Matsuyama, "Edge preserving smoothing",
Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 9:394-407, 1979.
[10] P.M. Narendra, "A separable median filter for image noise smoothing",
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 3(1):20-29, 1981.
[11] K.J. Overton and T.E. Weymouth, "A noise reducing preprocessing algorithm",
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Science Conference on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, pages 498-507, Chicago, IL, 1979.
[12] P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion",
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 12(7):629-639, 1990.
[13] G. Ramponi, "A rational edge-preserving smoother",
Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, volume 1, pages 151-154, Washington, DC, 1995.
[14] G. Sapiro and D.L. Ringach, "Anisotropic diffusion of color images",
Proceedings of the SPIE, volume 2657, pages 471-382, 1996.
[15] D.C.C. Wang, A.H. Vagnucci, and C.C. Li, "A gradient inverse weighted smoothing scheme and the evaluation of its performance",
Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 15:167-181, 1981.
[16] G. Wyszecki and W. S. Styles,
Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1982.
[17] L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, "Weighted median filters: a tutorial",IEEE
Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 43(3):155-192, 1996.

posted @ 2012-07-24 20:39 polly 阅读(1995) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏

1，const char*（C风格字符串）与string之间转换：

（1） const char*可以直接对string类型赋值，例如：

const char* pchar = "qwerasdf";

stringstr = pchar;

（2） string通过c_str()函数转换为C风格字符串，例如：

string str = "qwerasdf";

const char* pchar = str.c_str();

2，const char*类型可以直接给CString类型赋值，例如：

const char* pchar = "qwerasdf";

CString str = pchar;

3，string类型变量转为为Cstring类型变量

CString类型变量可以直接给string类型变量赋值，但是string类型不能对CString类型直接赋值。通过前两类

转换我们可以得到，string类型变量转换为const char*类型，然后再直接赋值就可以了。例如：

CString cstr；

sring str = “asdasd”；

cstr = str.c_str();

同理，CStrng类型变量先转换为string类型在调用c_str()函数就可以完成向const char*类型的转换。例如：

string str = cStr;

const char* pchar = str.c_str();
4，double，int转string

double temp;
stringstream strStream;
strStream<<temp;
string ss = strStream.str()

string 转double，int
string.atoi   ,   string.atof

从上面我们可以上面看出，通过类型之间的相互转化，会使本来要通过复杂的函数来完成的类型转换变得简单易懂。

posted @ 2012-07-24 20:34 polly 阅读(688) | 评论 (0)编辑 收藏